Angewandte Chemie International Edition

Cover image for Vol. 47 Issue 17

April 14, 2008

Volume 47, Issue 17

Pages 3067–3287

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Cover
    4. Graphical Abstract
    5. Corrigendum
    6. News
    7. Book Reviews
    8. Highlights
    9. Reviews
    10. Communications
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    1. Cover Picture: Carboxylic Acids as Substrates in Homogeneous Catalysis (Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 17/2008) (page 3067)

      Lukas J. Gooßen, Nuria Rodríguez and Käthe Gooßen

      Version of Record online: 8 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/anie.200890073

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      The rich chemistry of carboxylic acids as substrates in transition-metal catalysis has evolved in recent years. It is the key for developing new, more sustainable organic transformations from renewable raw materials. The cover picture shows the large number of different product classes accessible by catalytic transformations of carboxylic acids, emphasizing their high synthetic potential. In their Review on page 3100 ff., L. J. Gooßen et al. provide an overview of this emerging field offering extensive research possibilities.

  2. Inside Cover

    1. Top of page
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    3. Inside Cover
    4. Graphical Abstract
    5. Corrigendum
    6. News
    7. Book Reviews
    8. Highlights
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    1. Inside Cover: Visual Observation of Redistribution and Dissolution of Palladium during the Suzuki–Miyaura Reaction (Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 17/2008) (page 3068)

      Stephanie MacQuarrie, J. Hugh Horton, Jack Barnes, Kevin McEleney, Hans-Peter Loock and Cathleen M. Crudden

      Version of Record online: 8 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/anie.200890074

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      Palladium's disappearing (and reappearing) act within a specially designed reactor that heats only a small area of Pd foil during a Suzuki–Miyaura coupling is described by C. M. Crudden et al. in their Communication on page 3279 ff. Dissolution of Pd occurs only in the heated zone (left SEM image), and only in the presence of aryl iodide, whereas deposition of Pd occurs preferentially on the unheated zones adjacent to the reactive zone (right SEM image).

  3. Graphical Abstract

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  4. Corrigendum

    1. Top of page
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      A Simple and Specific Assay for Real-Time Colorimetric Visualization of β-Lactamase Activity by Using Gold Nanoparticles (page 3081)

      Rongrong Liu, Roushen Liew, Jie Zhou and Bengang Xing

      Version of Record online: 8 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/anie.200890076

      This article corrects:
  5. News

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Cover
    4. Graphical Abstract
    5. Corrigendum
    6. News
    7. Book Reviews
    8. Highlights
    9. Reviews
    10. Communications
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  6. Book Reviews

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    1. Four Laws that Drive the Universe. By Peter Atkins. (page 3088)

      Alan Cooper

      Version of Record online: 8 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/anie.200785577

    2. Intelligent Materials. Edited by Mohsen Shahinpoor and Hans-Jörg Schneider. (page 3089)

      Petra Hilgers, Alexander Riechers and Burkhard König

      Version of Record online: 8 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/anie.200885578

  7. Highlights

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    1. Polymer-Induced Transient Pores in Lipid Membranes (pages 3092–3095)

      Wolfgang H. Binder

      Version of Record online: 12 MAR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/anie.200800269

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      Better channeling: The insertion of amphiphilic, charged homo, graft, or block copolymers into lipid membranes is a way of forming defined membrane channels or pores. New insights into the mechanism of pore formation are discussed; for example, the picture shows the carpet mechanism for the insertion of amphiphilic graft polymers into a membrane.

    2. Catalytic C[BOND]C, C[BOND]N, and C[BOND]O Ullmann-Type Coupling Reactions: Copper Makes a Difference (pages 3096–3099)

      Florian Monnier and Marc Taillefer

      Version of Record online: 27 MAR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/anie.200703209

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      Copper makes the difference: Important challenges have been overcome in copper-catalyzed Ullmann reactions since its renaissance in the early 2000s. Significant advances in this field have recently been made in regards to carrying out enantioselective and chemoselective arylation of nucleophiles (Nu) by using a copper catalyst (see scheme).

  8. Reviews

    1. Top of page
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    5. Corrigendum
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    1. Carboxylic Acids as Substrates in Homogeneous Catalysis (pages 3100–3120)

      Lukas J. Gooßen, Nuria Rodríguez and Käthe Gooßen

      Version of Record online: 20 MAR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/anie.200704782

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      Ever increasing attention is being paid to transition-metal catalytic methods in which carboxylic acid derivatives act as substrates. Examples to be presented in this Review include the syntheses of esters, vinyl esters, biaryls, vinyl arenes, aldehydes, and ketones. The importance of these methods, especially in the context of sustainable synthetic chemistry, will be discussed.

    2. Heterocyclic Carbenes: Synthesis and Coordination Chemistry (pages 3122–3172)

      F. Ekkehardt Hahn and Mareike C. Jahnke

      Version of Record online: 8 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/anie.200703883

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      Carbene chameleons: Heterocyclic carbenes (see scheme) have gained great importance in synthetic organic and organometallic chemistry. The variation of the ring size and of the heteroatoms allows the properties of the carbenes and their metal complexes to be fine-tuned of over a wide range.

  9. Communications

    1. Top of page
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    4. Graphical Abstract
    5. Corrigendum
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    1. Shaping of a Conformationally Flexible Molecular Structure for Spectroscopy (pages 3174–3179)

      Anouk M. Rijs, Bridgit O. Crews, Mattanjah S. de Vries, Jeffrey S. Hannam, David A. Leigh, Marianna Fanti, Francesco Zerbetto and Wybren J. Buma

      Version of Record online: 19 MAR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/anie.200705627

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      Chaperones for wild molecules: A molecule's conformational flexibility can be eliminated by enclosing it with a macrocyclic mold as a [2]rotaxane (see picture) that forces it into a specific shape. After rapid cooling, the mold is removed with a laser pulse. Through this process, the molded molecule becomes a suitable candidate for high-resolution electronic excitation spectroscopy.

    2. METAMORPhos: Adaptive Supramolecular Ligands and Their Mechanistic Consequences for Asymmetric Hydrogenation (pages 3180–3183)

      Frederic W. Patureau, Mark Kuil, Albertus J. Sandee and Joost N. H. Reek

      Version of Record online: 17 MAR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/anie.200705212

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      Adapt to react: METAMORPhos ligands are a class of flexible and adaptive hydrogen-bonded multidentate sulfonamide-based phosphorus ligands. Selective formation of complexes with two different METAMORPhos ligands (see scheme) that display unusual kinetic behavior leads to the proposal of a new mechanism. These complexes are highly reactive and enantioselective in the rhodium-catalyzed asymmetric hydrogenation of alkenes.

    3. The Direct Conversion of Light into Continuous Mechanical Energy by Photoreversible Self-Assembly: A Prototype of a Light-Powered Engine (pages 3184–3187)

      Stefano Masiero, Stefano Lena, Silvia Pieraccini and Gian Piero Spada

      Version of Record online: 17 MAR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/anie.200705313

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      En route to a clean engine: The concentration of a chemical system containing an azobenzene derivative can be varied cyclically by light, and this variation has been exploited to produce continuous work. The cyclic concentration change of the system is the result of a light-controlled self-assembly/disassembly process.

    4. A Straightforward Route to Helically Chiral N-Heteroaromatic Compounds: Practical Synthesis of Racemic 1,14-Diaza[5]helicene and Optically Pure 1- and 2-Aza[6]helicenes (pages 3188–3191)

      Jiří Míšek, Filip Teplý, Irena G. Stará, Miloš Tichý, David Šaman, Ivana Císařová, Pavel Vojtíšek and Ivo Starý

      Version of Record online: 13 MAR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/anie.200705463

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      The taming of the screw: The CoI-catalyzed cyclotrimerization of triynes and microwave (MW) assisted aromatization with MnO2 are central to the practical synthesis of diaza[5]helicene and aza[6]helicenes. The aza[6]helicene racemates have been resolved, the absolute configuration of the enantiomers assigned, the energy barriers to racemization determined, and X-ray structures of their Ag complexes obtained (see picture; Cp=C5H5, OTf=triflate).

    5. Phototriggering of Cell Adhesion by Caged Cyclic RGD Peptides (pages 3192–3195)

      Svea Petersen, José María Alonso, Alexandre Specht, Portia Duodu, Maurice Goeldner and Aranzazu del Campo

      Version of Record online: 17 MAR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/anie.200704857

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      Restrained potential: A caged cyclic peptide attached to a surface is able to trigger cell attachment to the surface with spatiotemporal definition upon exposure to light (λ=351 nm). The peptide shows no integrin-binding activity in its caged form, but mediates cell adhesion effectively after irradiation (see optical microscopy image of cells on a surface irradiated through a mask in bands 100 μm in width).

    6. A Portable Albumin Binder from a DNA-Encoded Chemical Library (pages 3196–3201)

      Christoph E. Dumelin, Sabrina Trüssel, Fabian Buller, Eveline Trachsel, Frank Bootz, Yixin Zhang, Luca Mannocci, Susanne C. Beck, Mihaela Drumea-Mirancea, Mathias W. Seeliger, Christof Baltes, Thomas Müggler, Felicitas Kranz, Markus Rudin, Samu Melkko, Jörg Scheuermann and Dario Neri

      Version of Record online: 25 MAR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/anie.200704936

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      Seeing eye to eye: Plasma-protein binding is effective in improving the pharmacokinetic properties of otherwise short-lived molecules. One compound in a class of small portable albumin binders can be used to improve the in vivo circulatory half-life of two widely used contrast agents. It improves the imaging performance of fluorescein in angiographic analysis of the retina of mice (see picture).

    7. Effects of Guanidinium–Phosphate Hydrogen Bonding on the Membrane-Bound Structure and Activity of an Arginine-Rich Membrane Peptide from Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy (pages 3202–3205)

      Ming Tang, Alan J. Waring, Robert I. Lehrer and Mei Hong

      Version of Record online: 13 MAR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/anie.200705993

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      Barreling through: Guanidinium–phosphate hydrogen bonding significantly affects the structure and activity of the antimicrobial peptide PG-1. Solid-state NMR data show that a mutant of PG-1, having dimethylated Arg residues, adopts an in-plane orientation, interfacial location, and fast uniaxial motion around the membrane normal (see scheme). The less active mutant thus disrupts the membrane by in-plane diffusion, in contrast to the more active wild-type PG-1, which forms immobile transmembrane β-barrels to cause toroidal-pore membrane defects.

    8. Synthesis of an Extremely Bent Acyclic Allene (A “Carbodicarbene”): A Strong Donor Ligand (pages 3206–3209)

      C. Adam Dyker, Vincent Lavallo, Bruno Donnadieu and Guy Bertrand

      Version of Record online: 29 FEB 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/anie.200705620

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      Pushed to the limit: Pushing C[DOUBLE BOND]C π bonds to the breaking point by using a push–push substitution pattern forces allenes to bend (see structure; C light blue, N dark blue). An acyclic allene featuring a C[DOUBLE BOND]C[DOUBLE BOND]C bond angle of 134.8° has been isolated in which the typically sp-hybridized central carbon atom approaches a configuration that has two lone pairs of electrons, and acts as a very strong η1-donor ligand for transition metals.

    9. Coordination Chemistry of Ene-1,1-diamines and a Prototype “Carbodicarbene” (pages 3210–3214)

      Alois Fürstner, Manuel Alcarazo, Richard Goddard and Christian W. Lehmann

      Version of Record online: 17 MAR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/anie.200705798

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      Carbophilic Lewis acids can polarize a coordinated π-bond by a slippage mechanism. A series of stable ylid- or enolate gold complexes of ene-1,1-diamines not only emulate this property, but also reveal the exceptional donor capacity of such electron-rich olefin ligands. Moreover, the first metal complex of a tetraaminoallene is reported, which features a prototype “carbodicarbene” ligand bound to a transition-metal template.

    10. The Use of Single-Source Precursors for the Solution–Liquid–Solid Growth of Metal Sulfide Semiconductor Nanowires (pages 3215–3218)

      Jianwei Sun and William E. Buhro

      Version of Record online: 19 MAR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/anie.200705142

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      All wired up! High-quality colloidal PbS and CdS nanowires were grown from Bi nanoparticles by the solution–liquid–solid (SLS) mechanism. The single-source-precursor strategy could provide a general approach for the synthesis of colloidal semiconductor nanowires.

    11. Aerobic Alcohol Oxidation Coupled to Palladium-Catalyzed Alkene Hydroarylation with Boronic Esters (pages 3219–3222)

      Yasumasa Iwai, Keith M. Gligorich and Matthew S. Sigman

      Version of Record online: 17 MAR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/anie.200705317

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      An oxidation exercise: An aerobic alcohol oxidation coupled with a regioselective palladium-catalyzed reductive functionalization of styrenes and arylboronic esters has been developed (see scheme). The mechanism is thought to proceed by initial oxidation of the solvent to generate a PdII-hydride species, which subsequently reacts with the alkene and arylboronic ester to ultimately generate a new C[BOND]C bond.

    12. Transfer Semihydrogenation of Alkynes Catalyzed by a Zero-Valent Palladium N-Heterocyclic Carbene Complex (pages 3223–3226)

      Peter Hauwert, Giovanni Maestri, Jeroen W. Sprengers, Marta Catellani and Cornelis J. Elsevier

      Version of Record online: 13 MAR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/anie.200705638

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      Beyond Lindlar and without hydrogen: Transfer hydrogenation of internal alkynes catalyzed by a palladium(0) catalyst containing an N-heterocyclic carbene ligand gives Z alkenes without over-reduction to alkanes (see scheme). Contrary to most transfer hydrogenations, ketones are not reduced. As such, this is the first catalyst that shows excellent stereo- and chemoselectivity for the semihydrogenation of alkynes without the need for hydrogen gas.

    13. Catalytic Abatement of Nitrous Oxide Coupled with Selective Production of Hydrogen and Ethylene (pages 3227–3229)

      Evgenii V. Kondratenko and Olga Ovsitser

      Version of Record online: 17 MAR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/anie.200705324

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      Chemicals come clean: Calcium oxide doped with small amounts of sodium oxide is used as catalyst in the abatement of N2O by ethane to produce H2 and ethylene. The ethylene yield and the H2/C2H4 ratio are similar to those in the industrial steam cracking of ethane. The suggested process has potential for N2O removal in the production of adipic and nitric acid (see picture).

    14. A Heterobimetallic Pd/La/Schiff Base Complex for anti-Selective Catalytic Asymmetric Nitroaldol Reactions and Applications to Short Syntheses of β-Adrenoceptor Agonists (pages 3230–3233)

      Shinya Handa, Keita Nagawa, Yoshihiro Sohtome, Shigeki Matsunaga and Masakatsu Shibasaki

      Version of Record online: 17 MAR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/anie.200705617

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      Two metals in a pod: The combination of Pd and La with a dinucleating Schiff base was developed for anti selectivity in the catalytic asymmetric nitroaldol reaction (see scheme). Short syntheses of β-adrenoceptor agonists by using the heterobimetallic catalyst are presented.

    15. Enantioselective Synthesis of an Atropisomeric Diaryl Ether (pages 3234–3237)

      Jonathan Clayden, Christopher P. Worrall, Wesley J. Moran and Madeleine Helliwell

      Version of Record online: 17 MAR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/anie.200705660

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      Twisted ethers: Introduction of a bulky alkylsulfinyl substituent ortho to the C–O axis of a diaryl ether imposes a powerful conformational preference (see scheme). The preference persists upon oxidation of the sulfoxide to a sulfone, leading to dynamic thermodynamic resolution of the atropisomeric ether. This is the first enantioselective synthesis of an atropisomeric diaryl ether not forming part of a macrocyclic ring.

    16. Enantioselective Phase-Transfer-Catalyzed Intramolecular Aza-Michael Reaction: Effective Route to Pyrazino-Indole Compounds (pages 3238–3241)

      Marco Bandini, Astrid Eichholzer, Michele Tragni and Achille Umani-Ronchi

      Version of Record online: 17 MAR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/anie.200705685

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      Producing polycycles: A mild and direct stereocontrolled route to pharmacologically active pyrazino-indol-1-ones has been developed. The optimal phase-transfer conditions provide variously functionalized ring-closed compounds in high chemical and optical yields (see scheme; X=H, F, Cl, Me, OMe; Ar=Ph, β-naphthyl; R′=tBu, Et, Me; R=benzyl, para-methoxyphenyl).

    17. Total Synthesis of (+)-Neopeltolide by a Prins Macrocyclization (pages 3242–3244)

      Sang Kook Woo, Min Sang Kwon and Eun Lee

      Version of Record online: 17 MAR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/anie.200800386

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      Rings within rings: The total synthesis of (+)-neopeltolide was accomplished by employing an intramolecular Prins macrocyclization of an aldehydic homoallylic alcohol intermediate (see scheme).

    18. Ethanol as Hydrogen Donor: Highly Efficient Transfer Hydrogenations with Rhodium(I) Amides (pages 3245–3249)

      Theo Zweifel, Jean-Valère Naubron, Torsten Büttner, Timo Ott and Hansjörg Grützmacher

      Version of Record online: 17 MAR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/anie.200704685

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      Catalysts take to the bottle: Rhodium amides with a saw-horse structure serve as very efficient catalysts for the transfer hydrogenation of ketones and activated olefins using ethanol as hydrogen donor. Under mild conditions, the corresponding alcohols and ethyl acetate are formed with high efficiency, with a turnover frequency above 500 000 h−1.

    19. Dichotomic Reactivity of a Stable Silylene toward Terminal Alkynes: Facile C[BOND]H Bond Insertion versus Autocatalytic Formation of Silacycloprop-3-ene (pages 3250–3253)

      Shenglai Yao, Christoph van Wüllen, Xiao-Ying Sun and Matthias Driess

      Version of Record online: 13 MAR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/anie.200704939

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      Jekyll and Hyde: Stable silylene 1 reacts readily with acetylene at room temperature to give 1,1-adduct 2, whereas at −78 °C only silacycloprop-3-ene 3 is formed. Once 3 is present in the reaction mixture, it autocatalyzes its own generation even at room temperature. Both the facile silylene C[BOND]H bond insertion for terminal alkynes and the autocatalytic formation of silacycloprop-3-enes are unprecedented. R=2,6-iPr2C6H3.

    20. The Complete Stereochemistry of the Enzymatic Dehydration of 4-Hydroxybutyryl Coenzyme A to Crotonyl Coenzyme A (pages 3254–3257)

      Peter Friedrich, Daniel J. Darley, Bernard T. Golding and Wolfgang Buckel

      Version of Record online: 17 MAR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/anie.200705473

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      The stereospecific action of the microbial enzyme 4-hydroxybutyryl-CoA dehydratase on the three prochiral centers of its substrate 4-hydroxybutyryl-CoA can now be described as anti elimination of the 2Re and 3Si hydrogen atoms with retention of configuration during the substitution of the hydroxy group by a hydrogen atom. The results confirm the relationship of the dehydratase to acyl-CoA dehydrogenases and the view that the Fe4S4 cluster acts as a Lewis acid.

    21. Proximicins A, B, and C—Antitumor Furan Analogues of Netropsin from the Marine Actinomycete Verrucosispora Induce Upregulation of p53 and the Cyclin Kinase Inhibitor p21 (pages 3258–3261)

      Kathrin Schneider, Simone Keller, Falko E. Wolter, Lars Röglin, Winfried Beil, Oliver Seitz, Graeme Nicholson, Christina Bruntner, Julia Riedlinger, Hans-Peter Fiedler and Roderich D. Süssmuth

      Version of Record online: 17 MAR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/anie.200705295

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      Drugs from the sea: Three new netropsin-type antibiotics (13) with a hitherto unknown furan core structure have been isolated from marine actinomycete strains and their structures elucidated by means of mass spectrometry and 2D NMR spectroscopy. The compounds show antitumor activity and, in contrast to netropsin, they induce upregulation of p53 and the cyclin kinase inhibitor p21.

    22. Thermochemical and Physical Properties of Element 112 (pages 3262–3266)

      Robert Eichler, Nikolay V. Aksenov, Alexey V. Belozerov, Gospodin A. Bozhikov, Victor I. Chepigin, Sergey N. Dmitriev, Rugard Dressler, Heinz W. Gäggeler, Alexander V. Gorshkov, Mikhail G. Itkis, Florian Haenssler, Andreas Laube, Viacheslav Ya. Lebedev, Oleg N. Malyshev, Yuri Ts. Oganessian, Oleg V. Petrushkin, David Piguet, Andrei G. Popeko, Peter Rasmussen, Sergey V. Shishkin, Alexey A. Serov, Alexey V. Shutov, Alexander I. Svirikhin, Evgeny E. Tereshatov, Grigory K. Vostokin, Maciej Wegrzecki and Alexander V. Yeremin

      Version of Record online: 12 MAR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/anie.200705019

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      Every atom counts: New data for the adsorption chromatographic behavior of single atoms of element 112 confirm a metallic character involved in their interaction with a gold surface, similar to the lighter homologues Zn, Cd, and Hg. The elemental volatility of element 112 is much higher than that of lighter homologues of Group 12 of the periodic table, as empirically deduced from the experimental results.

    23. Cationic RuII Complexes with N-Heterocyclic Carbene Ligands for UV-Induced Ring-Opening Metathesis Polymerization (pages 3267–3270)

      Dongren Wang, Klaus Wurst, Wolfgang Knolle, Ulrich Decker, Lutz Prager, Sergej Naumov and Michael R. Buchmeiser

      Version of Record online: 12 MAR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/anie.200705220

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      Open sesame: Novel cationic RuII complexes with N-heterocyclic carbene ligands (see structure) have been prepared and used as UV-triggerable photoinitiators for ring-opening metathesis polymerization. They may be used for the high-yield synthesis of bulk polymers as well as for surface functionalization. Laser pulse radiolysis and NMR spectroscopy experiments supported by quantum chemical calculations give insight into the initiation mechanism.

    24. Dibenzo[c,g]fluorenyliron: An Organometallic Relative of Pentahelicene (pages 3271–3274)

      Frank Pammer, Yu Sun, Markus Pagels, Daniel Weismann, Helmut Sitzmann and Werner R. Thiel

      Version of Record online: 19 MAR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/anie.200705743

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      Close relatives! The Pd-catalyzed hydrogenation of the “isolated” C[DOUBLE BOND]C double bonds of dibenzo[c,g]fluorenide coordinated to an FeII center confirms that the electronic structure of this ligand in organometallic compounds is related to that of cyclopentadienide. The resulting 3,4,3′,4′-tetrahydrodibenzo[c,g]fluorenide is a new chiral cyclopentadienide ligand (see picture for the molecular structure of the Fe complex).

    25. Sensitized Detection of Inhibitory Fragments and Iterative Development of Non-Peptidic Protease Inhibitors by Dynamic Ligation Screening (pages 3275–3278)

      Marco Florian Schmidt, Albert Isidro-Llobet, Michael Lisurek, Adeeb El-Dahshan, Jinzhi Tan, Rolf Hilgenfeld and Jörg Rademann

      Version of Record online: 17 MAR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/anie.200704594

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      A potential anti-SARS drug has been developed by dynamic ligation screening (DLS), by which nucleophilic fragments are directed to the protein's active site by reversible reaction with an aldehyde inhibitor. Their inhibitory effect is detected by competition with a fluorogenic enzyme substrate. With this concept, low-affinity fragments binding specifically to the active site are quickly identified in a functional enzyme assay.

    26. Visual Observation of Redistribution and Dissolution of Palladium during the Suzuki–Miyaura Reaction (pages 3279–3282)

      Stephanie MacQuarrie, J. Hugh Horton, Jack Barnes, Kevin McEleney, Hans-Peter Loock and Cathleen M. Crudden

      Version of Record online: 1 APR 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/anie.200800153

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      Now you see it, now you don't: A specially designed reactor that heats only a small area of Pd foil during a Suzuki–Miyaura coupling permits observation of the surface changes during the reaction. Dissolution of Pd occurs only in the heated zone, and only in the presence of aryl iodide, whereas deposition of Pd occurs preferentially on the unheated zones adjacent to the reactive zone. SEM and XPS are employed to probe the surface before and after reaction.

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