Angewandte Chemie International Edition

Cover image for Vol. 48 Issue 2

January 2, 2009

Volume 48, Issue 2

Pages 237–411

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Cover
    4. Graphical Abstract
    5. News
    6. Book Review
    7. Highlight
    8. Minireview
    9. Review
    10. Communications
    11. Preview
    1. Cover Picture: 3,3′-Dihydroxyisorenieratene, a Natural Carotenoid with Superior Antioxidant and Photoprotective Properties (Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2/2009) (page 237)

      Hans-Dieter Martin, Sebastian Kock, Roger Scherrers, Kaya Lutter, Tanja Wagener, Claas Hundsdörfer, Susanne Frixel, Klaus Schaper, Hansgeorg Ernst, Wolfgang Schrader, Helmut Görner and Wilhelm Stahl

      Version of Record online: 23 DEC 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/anie.200890281

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      The red smear cheeses shown on the cover obtain their color from bacteria such as Brevibacterium linens, which contain highly effective antioxidant and photoprotective phenolic carotenoids such as 3,3′-dihydroxyisorenieratene (DHIR). In their Communication on page 400 ff., H.-D. Martin, W. Stahl, and co-workers describe the synthesis of DHIR and their investigation of its antioxidative and photoprotective properties. Its quinoid oxidation product is blue in color.

  2. Inside Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Cover
    4. Graphical Abstract
    5. News
    6. Book Review
    7. Highlight
    8. Minireview
    9. Review
    10. Communications
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    1. Inside Cover: How Rigid Rods Self-Assemble at Curved Surfaces (Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2/2009) (page 238)

      Weizheng Zhou, Jian Cao, Weichang Liu and Simeon Stoyanov

      Version of Record online: 23 DEC 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/anie.200890282

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      Superstable foams that contain air bubbles stabilized by modified, rigid CaCO3 rods are reported by W. Liu, S. Stoyanov, and co-workers in their Communication on page 378 ff. The very high stability and stiffness of the rod-stabilized bubbles means that their spherical shape is retained when dried on glass substrates. Despite the massive difference in length, the surface pattern of a 120 micrometer bubble with 25 micrometer rods is similar to that of 10 meter logs on a river surface.

  3. Graphical Abstract

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Cover
    4. Graphical Abstract
    5. News
    6. Book Review
    7. Highlight
    8. Minireview
    9. Review
    10. Communications
    11. Preview
  4. News

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Cover
    4. Graphical Abstract
    5. News
    6. Book Review
    7. Highlight
    8. Minireview
    9. Review
    10. Communications
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    1. Johan Hofkens (page 255)

      Version of Record online: 23 DEC 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/anie.200890284

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  5. Book Review

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Cover
    4. Graphical Abstract
    5. News
    6. Book Review
    7. Highlight
    8. Minireview
    9. Review
    10. Communications
    11. Preview
  6. Highlight

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Cover
    4. Graphical Abstract
    5. News
    6. Book Review
    7. Highlight
    8. Minireview
    9. Review
    10. Communications
    11. Preview
    1. Tetraalkyl Nickel

      Unexpected Formation of a Molecular Tetraalkyl Nickel Complex from an Olefin/Nickel(0) System (pages 260–261)

      Hans-Friedrich Klein and Peter Kraikivskii

      Version of Record online: 23 DEC 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/anie.200805499

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      Four thought: The first nickel(IV) complex that contains only alkyl ligands (see picture) was serendipitously obtained in a reaction between a nickel(0) species and a strained diolefin. The twisted conformation of the ligand provides the necessary steric shielding to stabilize the complex. DFT calculations show this conformation to be the ground state and NMR spectra indicate the diamagnetic nature and high oxidation state of the nickel center.

  7. Minireview

    1. Top of page
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    1. Electron Transfer

      Oxidation Leading to Reduction: Redox-Induced Electron Transfer (RIET) (pages 262–272)

      Joel S. Miller and Kil Sik Min

      Version of Record online: 29 OCT 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/anie.200705138

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      Redox paradox? The initial one-electron oxidation of a metal ion induces a multi-electron rearrangement, leading to oxidation of the second metal ion and reduction of the tetraoxolate dianionic ligand bridging the two metals (see scheme). These electron-transfer events were observed with numerous spectroscopic, electrochemical, and crystallographic methods (TpyA=tris(2-pyridylmethylamine).

  8. Review

    1. Top of page
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    4. Graphical Abstract
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    6. Book Review
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    1. Drug Vectors

      Drug Delivery by Soft Matter: Matrix and Vesicular Carriers (pages 274–288)

      Elodie Soussan, Stéphanie Cassel, Muriel Blanzat and Isabelle Rico-Lattes

      Version of Record online: 12 DEC 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/anie.200802453

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      How to deliver a drug: The current state of knowledge of drug carriers based on soft matter is presented, and in particular, the advantages and drawbacks of matrix and vesicular systems are discussed. An overview is given of their preparation, transposition to the industrial scale, and possible applications in vectorization.

  9. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Cover
    4. Graphical Abstract
    5. News
    6. Book Review
    7. Highlight
    8. Minireview
    9. Review
    10. Communications
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    1. Nickel Complexes

      A Stable Tetraalkyl Complex of Nickel(IV) (pages 290–294)

      Matthew Carnes, Daniela Buccella, Judy Y.-C. Chen, Arthur P. Ramirez, Nicholas J. Turro, Colin Nuckolls and Michael Steigerwald

      Version of Record online: 19 NOV 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/anie.200804435

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      Ni takes a load off: Nickel(0) and a strained alkene react to form a stable tris(alkene) complex, which eliminates the corresponding trans,trans,trans-cyclobutane upon heating. A higher proportion of alkene to Ni0 precursor yielded the first all-alkyl complex of nickel(IV) (see structure; Ni: green). These reactions, which involve ligand coupling, are driven by relief of ring strain in the alkene.

      Corrected by:

      Corrigendum: A Stable Tetraalkyl Complex of Nickel(IV)

      Vol. 48, Issue 19, 3384, Version of Record online: 23 APR 2009

    2. Cationic Phosphorus Clusters

      Formation of [Ph2P5]+, [Ph4P6]2+, and [Ph6P7]3+ Cationic Clusters by Consecutive Insertions of [Ph2P]+ into P[BOND]P Bonds of the P4 Tetrahedron (pages 295–298)

      Jan J. Weigand, Michael Holthausen and Roland Fröhlich

      Version of Record online: 8 DEC 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/anie.200804903

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      Positively phosphorus: A solvent-free melt system (P4/Ph2PCl/GaCl3) represents a powerful medium for the functionalization of the P4 tetrahedron to form new cationic phosphorus-rich organophosphorus cage and cluster systems, such as [Ph2P5]+, [Ph4P6]2+, and [Ph6P7]3+ (see picture), by insertion of [Ph2P]+ into P[BOND]P bonds.

    3. Fluorescence Imaging

      Hydrocyanines: A Class of Fluorescent Sensors That Can Image Reactive Oxygen Species in Cell Culture, Tissue, and In Vivo (pages 299–303)

      Kousik Kundu, Sarah F. Knight, Nick Willett, Sungmun Lee, W. Robert Taylor and Niren Murthy

      Version of Record online: 8 DEC 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/anie.200804851

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      Accurate and tunable: The title compounds can detect reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cell culture, tissue explants, and for the first time in vivo. The hydrocyanines are synthesized by reduction of the cyanine dyes with NaBH4. They can accurately detect nanomolar levels of ROS, have excellent stability against autoxidation, and have tunable emission wavelengths in the range 560–830 nm.

    4. Nanoparticle Sensors

      Europium-Based Fluorescence Nanoparticle Sensor for Rapid and Ultrasensitive Detection of an Anthrax Biomarker (pages 304–308)

      Kelong Ai, Baohua Zhang and Lehui Lu

      Version of Record online: 3 DEC 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/anie.200804231

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      Sensor and sensibility: A sensor that combines the properties of a europium complex and an organic-dye-doped silica nanoparticle allows the rapid and ultrasensitive detection of an anthrax biomarker (see picture yellow dots: silica nanoparticles, outer shell: EuIII complex). The sensor response is superior to that obtained with traditional terbium-based sensors.

    5. Quantum Dots

      Biosensing and Probing of Intracellular Metabolic Pathways by NADH-Sensitive Quantum Dots (pages 309–313)

      Ronit Freeman, Ron Gill, Itzhak Shweky, Moshe Kotler, Uri Banin and Itamar Willner

      Version of Record online: 3 DEC 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/anie.200803421

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      On the blue Nile: NAD(P)H-sensitive Nile Blue functionalized CdSe/ZnS quantum dots have been developed for the optical sensing of biocatalytic processes involving NAD+-dependent enzymes and the screening of anticancer drugs by monitoring intracellular metabolism (see picture).

    6. Framework Structures

      Heteroatom-Stabilized Chiral Framework of Aluminophosphate Molecular Sieves (pages 314–317)

      Xiaowei Song, Yi Li, Lin Gan, Zhuopeng Wang, Jihong Yu and Ruren Xu

      Version of Record online: 3 DEC 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/anie.200803578

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      Intrinsically chiral: The compounds (C4H12N)2 [M2Al10P12O48] (denoted MAPO-CJ40; M=Co, Zn) were solvothermally synthesized. Their structure contains one-dimensional helical 10-ring channels enclosed by double-helical ribbons of the same handedness made of the edge-sharing of 6-rings along the 21 screw axis. The framework is intrinsically chiral and exhibits a new zeotype structure.

    7. Fluorescent Clusters

      Shuttle-Based Fluorogenic Silver-Cluster Biolabels (pages 318–320)

      Junhua Yu, Sungmoon Choi and Robert M. Dickson

      Version of Record online: 3 DEC 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/anie.200804137

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      Clustering together: A shuttle-based fluorogenic cluster transfer, in which silver clusters (SCs) are directly transferred from a low-molecular-weight poly(acrylic acid) (PA) shuttle to a single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) tag on the protein of interest (see picture), proceeds with excellent specificity. Upon transfer, the cluster fluorescence increases more than ten times, which provides bright, photostable labeling.

    8. Functional Nanoparticles

      Hollow Manganese Oxide Nanoparticles as Multifunctional Agents for Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Drug Delivery (pages 321–324)

      Jongmin Shin, Rahman Md Anisur, Mi Kyeong Ko, Geun Ho Im, Jung Hee Lee and In Su Lee

      Version of Record online: 28 NOV 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/anie.200802323

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      MRI jack-o'-lanterns? Hollow manganese oxide nanoparticles (HMON) show greatly improved relaxivities and drug-loading capacities compared to those with solid interiors (WMON). Their efficient cellular uptake demonstrates their potential as a bifunctional medical system that combines diagnostic imaging and targeted therapy.

    9. Biosensors

      Amplifier-Mediated Activation of Cell-Penetrating Peptides with Steroids: Multifunctional Anion Transporters for Fluorogenic Cholesterol Sensing in Eggs and Blood (pages 325–328)

      Sara M. Butterfield, Tomohiro Miyatake and Stefan Matile

      Version of Record online: 3 DEC 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/anie.200804422

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      Off-the-shelf, prêt-à-porter multianalyte sensing systems are based on the ability of cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs; see picture, blue) to mediate the export of hydrophilic anions (yellow[RIGHTWARDS ARROW]green) from lipid bilayer vesicles (gray). Covalent capture of hydrophobic analytes (black) with hydrophilic anions (red) produces amphiphilic anions that can activate CPPs.

    10. Encapsulated Enzymes

      Triggered Enzymatic Degradation of DNA within Selectively Permeable Polymer Capsule Microreactors (pages 329–332)

      Andrew D. Price, Alexander N. Zelikin, Yajun Wang and Frank Caruso

      Version of Record online: 3 DEC 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/anie.200804763

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      Thinking in compartments is back! The degradation of a fluorescently labeled nucleic acid substrate within a polymer capsule by coencapsulated DNase I was initiated by activation of the enzyme with a chemical trigger. The degraded DNA diffused from the capsule (see picture). The semipermeable capsule microreactors enable external reaction control, high-throughput tracking of reaction progression, and continuous modification of the DNA cargo.

    11. Homogeneous Catalysis (1)

      Copper-Catalyzed Arylation of Nucleophiles by Using Butadienylphosphines as Ligands: Mechanistic Insight (pages 333–336)

      Hamid Kaddouri, Virginie Vicente, Armelle Ouali, Fouad Ouazzani and Marc Taillefer

      Version of Record online: 28 NOV 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/anie.200800688

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      Worth diene for: The butadienylphosphine L (see scheme), obtained on a large scale from a new synthetic method, is an efficient ligand in Ullmann-type copper-catalyzed arylation reactions. The use of this phosphorus ligand made it possible to follow the reaction by 31P NMR spectroscopy and thus to propose a mechanism for the Ullmann reaction.

    12. Homogeneous Catalysis (2)

      A Very Simple Copper-Catalyzed Synthesis of Anilines by Employing Aqueous Ammonia (pages 337–339)

      Ning Xia and Marc Taillefer

      Version of Record online: 1 OCT 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/anie.200802569

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      Phasing up to matters: The use of aqueous ammonia in a biphasic system with a copper catalyst and diketone supporting ligands allows the catalytic amination of both activated and unactivated aryl and heteroaryl iodides and bromides under very mild conditions (see scheme; R=electron-donating or -withdrawing group; acac=acetylacetonate).

    13. Synthetic Methods

      The Phenylsulfonyl Group as a Temporal Regiochemical Controller in the Catalytic Asymmetric 1,3-Dipolar Cycloaddition of Azomethine Ylides (pages 340–343)

      Ana López-Pérez, Javier Adrio and Juan C. Carretero

      Version of Record online: 9 DEC 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/anie.200805063

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      Controlling the regioselectivity: The phenylsulfonyl group controlled the regioselectivity in the title reaction to afford pyrrolidine-2,3-dicarboxylates with good regioselectivity and high exo selectivity and enantioselectivity (see scheme). The products are precursors to substituted pyrrolidines and pyrrolines that are not attainable by direct 1,3-dipolar cycloadditions with typical acrylates.

    14. Dual Labeling of Biomolecules by Using Click Chemistry: A Sequential Approach (pages 344–347)

      Péter Kele, Gábor Mezö, Daniela Achatz and Otto S. Wolfbeis

      Version of Record online: 9 DEC 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/anie.200804514

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      Click by click: Dual labeling of model compounds was carried out by using copper-free and copper-mediated click chemistry in a sequential manner. This method was used to introduce two labels onto biological targets or nanoparticles, thus quickly converting them into fluorescence resonance energy transfer systems.

    15. Homogeneous Catalysis

      A Simple and Efficient Approach to Quinazolinones under Mild Copper-Catalyzed Conditions (pages 348–351)

      Xiaowei Liu, Hua Fu, Yuyang Jiang and Yufen Zhao

      Version of Record online: 3 DEC 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/anie.200804675

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      Cop some rings: A simple and highly efficient copper-catalyzed method for the synthesis of quinazolinone derivatives through the reaction of substituted 2-halobenzoic acids with amidines or guanidines under mild conditions has been developed (see scheme). The method has economical and practical advantages.

    16. Hydrated Proton

      Strong Isotope Effects in the Infrared Spectrum of the Zundel Cation (pages 352–355)

      Oriol Vendrell, Fabien Gatti and Hans-Dieter Meyer

      Version of Record online: 28 NOV 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/anie.200804646

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      Increasing the mass makes a mess: Partial or total deuteration of the protonated water dimer drastically alters its vibrations. Coupling between certain vibrational modes is strongly enhanced, whereas other modes are decoupled. Full-dimensional quantum-dynamics simulation and assignment of the IR spectrum of various isotopologues of the cation show the intricate dynamics of the smallest protonated water cluster.

    17. Anion Receptors

      Effective Binding and Sensing of Lipopolysaccharide: Combining Complementary Pattern Recognition Receptors (pages 356–360)

      V. Ganesh, Karin Bodewits, S. Josefin Bartholdson, Daniela Natale, Dominic J. Campopiano and Juan C. Mareque-Rivas

      Version of Record online: 3 DEC 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/anie.200804168

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      Nature inspired: A synthetic receptor (see picture) that exploits two zinc(II) ions and four convergent amino hydrogen bonding groups binds lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) almost as strongly as the LPS binding protein. This feature is exploited to electrochemically distinguish LPS from other pathogens in water and in complex biological mixtures. Zn pink, N blue, P orange, O red.

    18. Binary Colloids

      A Chemical Synthetic Route towards “Colloidal Molecules” (pages 361–365)

      Adeline Perro, Etienne Duguet, Olivier Lambert, Jean-Christophe Taveau, Elodie Bourgeat-Lami and Serge Ravaine

      Version of Record online: 21 NOV 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/anie.200802562

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      Sowing the seeds: Binary colloidal particles of controlled morphology, including line segments, triangles, tetrahedra, octahedra, and square antiprisms (see picture) were obtained by an emulsion polymerization of styrene in the presence of silica seeds. These morphologies result from the minimization of an energy term that is the sum of two forces—an attraction towards the center and two-body particle repulsions that balance the attractive force.

    19. Noble Gas Compounds

      Is it Possible To Synthesize a Neutral Noble Gas Compound Containing a Ng[BOND]Ng Bond? A Theoretical Study of H[BOND]Ng[BOND]Ng[BOND]F (Ng=Ar, Kr, Xe) (pages 366–369)

      C. Óscar C. Jiménez-Halla, Israel Fernández and Gernot Frenking

      Version of Record online: 3 DEC 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/anie.200803252

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      Marrying nobility: Quantum chemical calculations predict that the dixenon compound HXeXeF has an activation barrier for decomposition of about 11 kcal mol−1, which should be large enough to identify the molecule in a low-temperature matrix.

    20. Domino Reactions

      Control of the Regio- and Stereoselectivity in Diels–Alder Reactions with Quinone Boronic Acids (pages 370–374)

      María C. Redondo, Marcos Veguillas, María Ribagorda and M. Carmen Carreño

      Version of Record online: 8 DEC 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/anie.200803428

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      It all adds up: The dienophilic reactivity of 2-methyl-substituted quinones has been substantially increased by the introduction of a boronic acid substituent, which makes them equivalent to a highly reactive quinone. The Diels–Alder reactions of these quinones are followed by spontaneous and stereoselective protodeboronation to give the trans-fused adducts. The boron group is a temporal regiocontroller and leads to the uncommon meta adduct.

    21. Ion Transport

      A Synthetic Ion Channel Derived from a Metallogallarene Capsule That Functions in Phospholipid Bilayers (pages 375–377)

      Oleg V. Kulikov, Ruiqiong Li and George W. Gokel

      Version of Record online: 3 DEC 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/anie.200804099

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      Changing the channel: Dodecanal and pyrogallol were condensed to give a tetramer, which was crystallized as the bilayer and the hexameric molecular capsule. A copper-seamed metallogallarene capsule functioned as an ion transporter and showed selectivity for potassium over chloride ion transport in a phospholipid bilayer (see picture). The capsule also showed voltage-dependent gating of its open–close behavior when examined in asolectin membranes.

    22. Microstructures

      How Rigid Rods Self-Assemble at Curved Surfaces (pages 378–381)

      Weizheng Zhou, Jian Cao, Weichang Liu and Simeon Stoyanov

      Version of Record online: 3 DEC 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/anie.200804194

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      I'm forever blowing bubbles: Superstable foams comprising air bubbles stabilized by modified, rigid CaCO3 rods have a bimodal bubble-size distribution. The very high stability and stiffness of the rod-stabilized bubbles means that their spherical shape is retained when dried on glass substrates and that they could be ordered into 2D binary colloidal crystals, with large bubbles at the bottom and small bubbles filling the spaces in between (see picture).

    23. Enantiomer Detection

      Enantioselective Precipitation and Solid-State Fluorescence Enhancement in the Recognition of α-Hydroxycarboxylic Acids (pages 382–385)

      Hai-Lin Liu, Xue-Long Hou and Lin Pu

      Version of Record online: 8 DEC 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/anie.200804538

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      Unusually sensitive: A chiral sensor based on 1,1′-bi-2-naphthol was prepared, which can provide visual enantioselective discrimination of α-hydroxycarboxylic acids. When the sensor and the acid have matched configurations, an enantioselective precipitation occurs, which is accompanied by a dramatic (over 950-fold) solid-state fluorescence enhancement (see picture).

    24. Systems Chemistry

      An Examination of the Role of Autocatalytic Cycles in the Chemistry of Proposed Primordial Reactions (pages 386–390)

      Donna G. Blackmond

      Version of Record online: 3 DEC 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/anie.200804565

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      Let's start at the very beginning: Reaction simulations were used to clarify differences between autoinductive and autocatalytic processes in the context of recent models pertaining to the chemical origin of life (see plot). The ability of a catalytic network to persist in the face of disruptive challenges is essential to its potential to play a role in prebiotic chemistry.

    25. Multicomponent Reactions

      A Cooperative Copper- and Palladium-Catalyzed Three-Component Coupling of Benzynes, Allylic Epoxides, and Terminal Alkynes (pages 391–394)

      Masilamani Jeganmohan, Sivakolundu Bhuvaneswari and Chien-Hong Cheng

      Version of Record online: 3 DEC 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/anie.200804873

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      A little cooperation: A cooperative copper- and palladium-catalyzed highly regio- and chemoselective three-component coupling of benzynes, allylic epoxides, and terminal alkynes provides an efficient atom-economical route to ortho-disubstituted arenes. The resulting product undergoes a gold-catalyzed cyclization reaction (see scheme; dba=dibenzylideneacetone, dppp=1,3-bis(diphenylphosphanyl)propane).

    26. Mesocrystals

      Calcite Crystals with Platonic Shapes and Minimal Surfaces (pages 395–399)

      Rui-Qi Song, An-Wu Xu, Markus Antonietti and Helmut Cölfen

      Version of Record online: 9 DEC 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/anie.200803383

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      A Platonic relationship: Calcite single and mesocrystals with two platonic shapes and minimal surfaces are formed by a unified polymer-controlled nanoparticle aggregation. The shapes of the crystals (see picture for example) are tuned by the reactant concentration. The morphogenesis follows a nonclassical mechanism. A rhombohedral primitive minimal surface was observed for the first time in a synthetic crystallization of micrometer-sized particles.

    27. Carotenoids

      3,3′-Dihydroxyisorenieratene, a Natural Carotenoid with Superior Antioxidant and Photoprotective Properties (pages 400–403)

      Hans-Dieter Martin, Sebastian Kock, Roger Scherrers, Kaya Lutter, Tanja Wagener, Claas Hundsdörfer, Susanne Frixel, Klaus Schaper, Hansgeorg Ernst, Wolfgang Schrader, Helmut Görner and Wilhelm Stahl

      Version of Record online: 25 NOV 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/anie.200803668

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      The color of red smear cheeses arises from naturally occurring carotenoids like 3,3′-dihydroxyisorenieratene (1). This compound and its oxidation product 2, which have unusual phenolic and quinoid end groups, respectively, were synthesized. The antioxidant and photoprotective properties of a series of carotenoids were tested with eight different model systems, and 1 proved to be superior to other carotenoids.

    28. Radical Pairs in Proteins

      Direct Observation of a Photoinduced Radical Pair in a Cryptochrome Blue-Light Photoreceptor (pages 404–407)

      Till Biskup, Erik Schleicher, Asako Okafuji, Gerhard Link, Kenichi Hitomi, Elizabeth D. Getzoff and Stefan Weber

      Version of Record online: 4 DEC 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/anie.200803102

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      Compass component: Blue-light excitation of the photoreceptor cryptochrome generates a transient radical pair by electron transfer from a tryptophan (Trp) at the surface to the flavin cofactor in the center of the protein (see picture; FAD=flavin adenine dinucleotide). Simulated EPR spectra show that the electronic coupling parameters of these radical pairs are suitable for animal magnetoreception.

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    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Cover
    4. Graphical Abstract
    5. News
    6. Book Review
    7. Highlight
    8. Minireview
    9. Review
    10. Communications
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      Preview: Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 3/2009 (page 411)

      Version of Record online: 23 DEC 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/anie.200890286

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