This paper reviews the literature concerning adult rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients' adherence with medication regimens, home exercise, splint usage, and self-management of pain. There are few reliable data regarding the prevalence of adherence problems or the attributes of patients, health-care providers, and environments that may influence adherence. In addition, little effort has been devoted to the development of interventions that may enhance adherence. Future investigators should attend to (1) the development of reliable and valid measures of adherence; (2) longitudinal studies of changes in adherence as a function of disease activity, treatment methods, and third-party reimbursements for services; (3j observational studies of patient–provider interactions and their influence on adherence; and (4) interventions to enhance adherence that are based on a self-regulation model.