The use of aqueous media in palladium-catalyzed reactions has become popular because water-based synthetic processes are inherently safer as well as being inexpensive. Moreover, it does not require dry solvents, and the products may easily be isolated by extraction, which greatly facilitates the operation. Thus the use of water in palladium-catalyzed reactions represents one of the most economically and environmentally viable options for many organic transformations. In this review, recent developments of Sonogashira reaction in water or aqueous media will be disclosed. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.