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Keywords:

  • Peroxopolytungstic acid;
  • etching;
  • refractive index;
  • optical waveguide;
  • diffractional grating;
  • photochromism

Abstract

Thin films of peroxohetero(carbon)polytungstic acid (CW-HPA) and carbon-free isopolytungstic acid (W-IPA) were prepared, and examined in terms of optical and etching properties. Thermal decomposition was found to give good results in removing excess hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) during the preparation of CW-HPA and W-IPA. It was shown for the first time that thin films of CW-HPA and W-IPA have very high refractive indices (larger than 2.0) when sufficiently dried. Optical waveguide (OWG) characteristics of these films were examined using a slab-type OWG structure and ARROW (Antiresonance Reflection Optical Waveguide)-type structures. An embossing technique was applied to make diffractional grating couplers.