Graphene is considered a promising material for fuel cell vehicles because of its excellent chemical, mechanical, and electrical properties. Recent studies have revealed that using graphene or modified graphene as the catalyst support or as a metal-free catalyst results in significant improvement in the electrocatalytic activity, long term durability, and CO tolerance. This article summarizes both the recent progress of graphene-based fuel cell research and current developments in graphene fabrication processes such as mechanical exfoliation, chemical vapor deposition, and chemical exfoliation. The roles of graphene are also discussed by introducing mechanisms on the basis of theoretical calculations as well as experimental analysis. © 2012 Curtin University of Technology and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.