Phenolic resol resin from phenolated corn bran and its characteristics



To prepare phenolic resol resin, corn bran (CB) was liquefied in the presence of phenol and the liquefied CB was condensed with formaldehyde under alkaline condition. From NMR spectra of phenolated CB and phenolated CB–based resol resin, it was found that phenol was reacted with depolymerized CB components and the phenolated CB was methylolated by condensation with formaldehyde. Molecular weight distribution was divided into a high molecular weight zone, attributed mainly to phenolated CB, and a low molecular weight zone, which was attributed to the condensation reactants of formaldehyde and the unreacted phenol of liquefied CB. When reaction conditions became severe, a high molecular weight zone was increased. Formaldehyde/unreacted phenol of liquefied CB molar ratio most affected the change of a low molecular weight zone. To reduce the viscosity of the phenolated CB–based resol resin, a milder condensation condition was required compared with that for preparing the conventional resol resin. Properties of the resol resin were comparable to those of conventional resol resin for plywood manufacture. © 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 87: 1365–1370, 2003