Relation of swelling and Tg depression to the apparent free volume of a particle-filled, epoxy-based adhesive

Authors

  • Martin Y. M. Chiang,

    Corresponding author
    1. Polymers Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899
    • Polymers Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Marta Fernandez-Garcia

    1. Polymers Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899
    Search for more papers by this author

  • This article is a US Government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America.

Abstract

The effect of hygrothermal aging on a particle-filled, epoxy-based adhesive was studied using a gravimetric sorption technique. This study has explored moisture sorption characteristics as well as the associated behaviors of swelling and the depression of the glass transition temperature (Tg). We observed that the diffusion of water in this adhesive has a non-Fickian behavior, and the depression of Tg proceeds to a definite value that is independent of the final equilibrium water content of the system. Our observations suggest that water diffuses into the polymer in a dual-sorption mode, in which water resides in two populations. In one population, water is considered to occupy apparent free volume of the adhesive, and the second population water infiltrates polymer structure and forms hydrogen-bonded clusters. Our results show that hygrothermal aging temperature and swelling do not alter the apparent free volume of this adhesive. We conclude that the constant value of Tg depression at saturation implies that only water in the apparent free volume is responsible for the Tg depression, whereas the swelling proceeds through the formation of hydrogen bonds in the adhesive. © 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 87: 1436–1444, 2003

Ancillary