Curing process of powdered phenol–formaldehyde resol resins and the role of water in the curing systems

Authors

  • Guangbo He,

    1. Department of Wood Science and Forestry, Research Center on Macromolecular Science and Engineering, Université Laval, Québec, Canada
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  • Bernard Riedl,

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Wood Science and Forestry, Research Center on Macromolecular Science and Engineering, Université Laval, Québec, Canada
    • Department of Wood Science and Forestry, Research Center on Macromolecular Science and Engineering, Université Laval, Québec, Canada
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  • Abdellatif Aït-Kadi

    1. Department of Chemical Engineering, Research Center on Macromolecular Science and Engineering, Université Laval, Québec, Canada
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Abstract

The curing behavior of two kinds of commercial powdered resol phenolic resins was studied by differential scanning calorimetry. Liquid-state 13C-NMR spectroscopy was used to aid in understanding the curing behavior by detecting the structure of powdered resins. The reaction mechanism was interpreted with the dependency of activation energy on the degree of conversion. The results indicate that there are differences in the curing mechanism between core and face phenolic resins. The curing process of core resin was faster than that of face resin at the same reaction temperature. The water added in the curing system played an important role of plasticizer or diluent according to different curing stages and water content. In the initial curing stage, water mainly diluted the system and retarded the curing reactions. However, at the higher degrees of conversion, water played the role of plasticizer to decrease the effect of diffusion on the curing reactions to make the curing reactions more complete. The excess water added in the curing system played the role of diluent at almost all stages during the curing process. © 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 89: 1371–1378, 2003

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