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Abstract

The addition reaction between melamine and formaldehyde has been kinetically separated from the subsequent condensation stage by suitable choice of concentration and temperature conditions. The reaction, which is reversible, has been monitored by estimation of the free formaldehyde content of the system. It has been investigated over the range of mean degree of methylolation 1 < R′ < 3.7 of the melamine nuclei, the temperature range 25–55°C., and the pH range 5.7–10.2. The rate data thus obtained have been treated according to the random reversible addition scheme for which reasonable, first approximation, agreement was obtained. Average kinetic and thermodynamic constants have been calculated and are discussed in terms of the present model. The factors which are likely to cause deviations from randomness are described. The addition of formaldehyde to melamine proceeds by superposition of an OH-catalyzed step with a minor solvent-catalyzed or uncatalyzed one.