High quality packaging films from hydroxyethyl cellulose of low degree of substitution (DS) are being produced commercially in this country and abroad. Increasing demand for this and a variety of other applications requires a rapid and simple production control method for determining hydroxyethyl substitution of cellulose. None of the known analytical methods fulfills these requirements. The present paper describes a method which is based on the relationship between the solubility and the molar hydroxyethyl substitution of hydroxyethyl cellulose. A washed and dried sample of hydroxyethyl cellulose is dissolved in 7% aqueous sodium hydroxide. Methyl alcohol, a nonsolvent, is used to precipitate a fraction of the sample. The turbidity of the equilibrium system is determined and optical density readings are related to molar substitution. The method is most useful in low DS ranges of 2–8% EtO but is susceptile to broader application through adjustment of the composition of the solvent–nonsolvent mixture. Relatively large variations in DP can be tolerated. The molar substitution level of an hydroxyethyl cellulose sample can be obtained in 40 min. by this method, making it a practical production control technique.