When effect of the substrate is nullified, resiliency can be defined as a function of strain, time, and humidity. Determination of improvement in the immediate, or rapid, tensile recovery readily delineates differences due to chemical modifications. Delayed recovery is usually less improved than immediate. Crosslinking cotton with dimethylolethyleneurea (DMEU) increases tensile strain recovery as the number of crosslinks increase, reduces dependency of recovery upon external strain, and produces maximum recovery at about 65% R.H. Noncrosslinking treatments produce limited increases in tensile strain recovery. Measurements on yarns crosslinked with DMEU and then hydrolyzed indicate that incalculably few residual links may contribute to tensile recovery. N-Methylol-N'-methylethyleneurea treated cotton displays physical blocking and water swelling which aid recovery. Oleoyl chloride esterified cellulose has tensile recovery probably due to molecular entanglements. Its delayed or viscoelastic recovery is the most improved with immediate recovery being the least improved. The higher the moisture regain, the greater tensile modulus reduction under wet conditions. Crosslinking with DMEU under dry conditions lessens this reduction in modulus. Improvements in the tensile recovery of strain and energy, for all samples and with varied conditions of humidity and strain, correspond linearly with unit slope.