Role of adhesive–substrate compatibility in adhesion

Authors

  • Y. Iyengar,

    1. Industrial Products Research Laboratory, E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Company, Inc., Wilmington, Delaware 19898
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  • D. E. Erickson

    1. Industrial Products Research Laboratory, E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Company, Inc., Wilmington, Delaware 19898
    Current affiliation:
    1. General Tire and Rubber Company, Akron, Ohio
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Abstract

For substrates such as polyesters having limited capacity for hydrogen bonding or other specific interactions, thermodynamic compatibility of the substrate and adhesive is shown to be a key factor in promoting bondability to the substrate. Such compatibility occurs, as shown by Abere, when the cohesive energy densities (CED) or solubility parameters (δ = √CED) of substrate and adhesive are matched. Investigations with polyester film-adhesive-film model systems with the use of a variety of nonpolar (hydrocarbon) and polar (chlorinated compounds, ethers, esters) adhesives illustrate how compatibility promotes bondability to poly(ethylene terephthalate). The poor adhesion of polyester fibers to resorcinol–formaldehyde–latex (RFL) adhesives is attributed to the incompatibility of resorcinol (δ = 16.0) with the polyester (δ = 10.3). Adhesion to RFL was improved by substituting the more compatible n-hexyl resorcinol (δ = 12.5) for resorcinol in RFL adhesives. Currently, the best adhesive systems for polyester tire yarns are those (e.g., isocyanate–epoxy) involving formation of urethane polymers having matching δ values with poly(ethylene terephthalate).

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