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The graft copolymerization of styrene and lignin. II. Kraft softwood lignin

Authors

  • R. B. Phillips,

    1. Departments of Chemical Engineering and Wood and Paper Science, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27607
    Current affiliation:
    1. Centre Technique du Papier, University of Grenoble, France
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  • W. Brown,

    1. Departments of Chemical Engineering and Wood and Paper Science, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27607
    Current affiliation:
    1. Department of Physical Chemistry, University of Uppsala, Sweden
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  • V. T. Stannett

    1. Departments of Chemical Engineering and Wood and Paper Science, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27607
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Abstract

The radiation-induced graft copolymerization of styrene and various kraft softwood lignins was studied. Expression of the results as the usual “per cent graft” was impossible, because grafting caused the lignin to become extractable in solvents for the styrene homopolymer. However, evaluation of the effects of various solvents on the degree of reaction was made through an indirect, and possibly more characteristic, measure. Grafting was least pronounced under conditions of low lignin accessibility (e.g., when less than 10% methanol was present), but increased with the addition of better lignin solvents or with higher methanol concentrations. The precipitating nature of the latter conditions was also found to contribute to an accelerated rate of grafting. Surprisingly, the graft copolymer was found to degrade at higher doses. Proof of grafting is offered in a fractionation scheme. Measurement of the molecular weight of the polystyrene separated from the lignin backbone allows the estimation of approximately one polystyrene graft per lignin molecule in benzene-extractable copolymers. Two glass transition temperatures could be detected in several fractionated copolymers.

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