Electric field-induced piezoelectricity in polymer film



An apparatus is devised for measuring the real and imaginary components of the piezoelectric strain constant d = d′ − id″ for polymer films with a d.c. bias field. Electric fieldinduced piezoelectricity is observed for films of several types of polymer. The ratio of the piezoelectric constant to the d.c. bias field gives (ϵ + κ)/G where ϵ is the dielectric constant, κ is the electrostriction constant, and G is the elastic constant. The temperature dependence of the field-induced piezoelectricity gives, therefore, combined information of dielectric and elastic properties of polymers. After heating to about 95°C followed by cooling to room temperature, maintaining a constant d.c. basis on a poly(vinyl chloride) film, piezoelectricity is observed at null d.c. field, which suggests the introduction of a residual polarization in the films.