Effects of density and structure on load bearing and permeability characteristics of a family of shock mitigating phenolic foams



The effects of reaction rate and density on the properties of the phenolic foam described in the first paper were studied. Process and formulation variables were examined through altering the basic chemical composition described below, in which all parts are by weight; phenolic resin two component intermediate, 200 parts; hydrophilic surfactant, 0.25 parts; lipophilic surfactant, 0.50 parts; fluorocarbon blowing agent, 12 parts; 47.5 wt % sulfuric acid, 25 parts; and 80 wt % phosphoric acid, 15 parts. Compressive stress values at 20% deflection were utilized for comparing the effects of the studied parameters on the load bearing cabability of the foam. Pressure drop of air flowing through the foam was employed as a measure of the permeability or breathability. Permeability load bearing functions were identified as a potential means for optimizing the relationship between breathability and compression-deflection characteristics. The overall effects of cell structure on the relationship between load bearing and density have been related in a qualitative manner.