Thiuram vulcanization of natural rubber in the presence of hydrofuramide and ethanolamines



Influence of hydrofuramide and ethanolamines on efficient vulcanization (EV), semi-EV, and conventional sulfur vulcanization accelerated by tetramethyl thiuram disulfide is reported. In the case of thiuram vulcanization, the amines increase the cure rate but reduce the crosslink density. The interaction of tetramethyl thiuram disulfide with amines has been studied. The amines interact with thiuram disulfide (TMTD) giving rise to the formation of gaseous products. Thermogravimetric analysis shows weight loss of about 50% in case of TMTD–ethanolamine system and 25% in case of TMTD–hydrofuramide system. Gas chromatographic studies of the gaseous products indicate that it consists mainly of H2S. The other constituents in the gaseous product are CO2 and a thiol. A possible reaction based on these observations to account for decrease in crosslink density in thiuram vulcanization caused by amines is reported.