Reaction of cellulose with hexamethylphosphoric acid triamide has been investigated under various physical conditions. Dimethylamine hydrochloride was found to be an efficient catalyst for the system. The thermal degradation of cellulose and its phosphoramide products in air was studied by DTA, TG, and DTG techniques from ambient temperature to 500°C. The data were processed for the various thermodynamic parameters following the methods of Freeman and Carroll, of Broido, and of Dave and Chopra. The energies of activation, Ea, for the degradation for various cellulose phosphoramide samples were found to be in the range of 92–136 kJ mol−1. These values were found to decrease with increase in the degree of substitution. A mechanism for the thermal degradation of cellulose phosphoramide has been proposed. The IR spectra of char residues of cellulose phosphoramide gave an indication of the formation of compounds containing CO and PO groups.