Blood compatibility of cellulose graft copolymers with poly(γ-benzyl-L-glutamate) and poly(N5-2-hydroxyethyl-L-glutamine) (Cell-g-PBLG and Cell-g-PHEG) was examined in vivo blood tests. For this purpose, Cell-g-PBLG graft copolymers with PBLG contents ranging from 7 to 60 mol % were prepared by polymerizing N-carboxy-γ-benzyl-L-glutamate(γ-BLG NCA) using aminoethyl cellulose (AE-Cell) with degree of substitution of 0.05 as macroinitiator. Graft copolymerization was carried out under a variety of conditions at 20°C in dimethyl-sulfoxide. Monomer conversion higher than 60% were obtained for all the polymerization runs. The solubility tests revealed that all of the AE-Cell and the polypeptides formed were grafted. The Cell-g-PHEG graft copolymers were prepared by treating Cell-g-PBLG graft copolymers with 2-amino-1-ethanol. Characterization of these graft copolymers were carried out by IR spectroscopy, DSC, and water content measurement. Tests for blood compatibility, in vivo, were made by a method of peripheral vein indwelling suture which was developed by one of the authors. The coating of graft copolymers on the polyester suture was made by casting either from formic acid solution of LiCl/dimethylacetamide solutions using water as the regenerating medium, and the polymer-coated sutures were implanted into a jugular and femoral vein of a dog. The results showed that the graft copolymers examined have excellent antithrombogenic properties.