Graft copolymerization of acrylamide onto carboxymethylcellulose with the xanthate method



Acrylamide was grafted to an xanthate mixture of carboxymethylcellulose with a sodium bisulfate/ammonium persulfate redox initiator system in water, sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, and dioxane at 40, 50, 60, 70, and 80°C during a reaction period of 2 h. The grafted polymer and homopolymer were isolated with diethyl ether from the reaction mixture, dried, and weighed. The grafted polymer was characterized with IR and mass spectrometry methods, and the microscopic morphology was detected with electron scanning microscopy. The graft level percentage distinctly increased with the use of sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, and dioxane over that of a reaction carried out completely in an aqueous medium. Also, the graft level decreased as the reaction temperature increased. © 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 93: 271–278, 2004