Role of the cation-exchange capacity in the formation of polystyrene–clay nanocomposites by in situ intercalative polymerization

Authors

  • S. Aphiwantrakul,

    1. Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Rama 6 Road, Rachathevee, Bangkok 10400, Thailand
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  • T. Srikhirin,

    Corresponding author
    1. Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Rama 6 Road, Rachathevee, Bangkok 10400, Thailand
    2. Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Capability Building Unit, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Rama 6 Road, Rachathevee, Bangkok 10400, Thailand
    • Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Rama 6 Road, Rachathevee, Bangkok 10400, Thailand
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  • D. Triampo,

    1. Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Rama 6 Road, Rachathevee, Bangkok 10400, Thailand
    2. Institute of Science and Technology for Research and Development, Salaya Campus, Mahidol University, Nakorn Pathom 71730, Thailand
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  • R. Putiworanat,

    1. Metallurgy and Materials Science Research Institute, Chulalongkorn University, Phyathai Road, Bangkok 10330, Thailand
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  • S. Limpanart,

    1. Metallurgy and Materials Science Research Institute, Chulalongkorn University, Phyathai Road, Bangkok 10330, Thailand
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  • T. Osotchan,

    1. Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Rama 6 Road, Rachathevee, Bangkok 10400, Thailand
    2. Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Capability Building Unit, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Rama 6 Road, Rachathevee, Bangkok 10400, Thailand
    3. Institute of Science and Technology for Research and Development, Salaya Campus, Mahidol University, Nakorn Pathom 71730, Thailand
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  • W. Udomkichdecha

    1. Metallurgy and Materials Science Research Institute, Chulalongkorn University, Phyathai Road, Bangkok 10330, Thailand
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Abstract

An effect of the cation-exchange capacity (CEC) on the formation of polystyrene–clay nanocomposites is reported. Two types of 2:1 layered silicates with different CECs, Wyoming (97 mequiv/100 g of clay) and bentonite H (BNH; 131 mequiv/100 g of clay) were investigated. The organoclay was prepared through the mixing of purified clay and octadecyldimethylammonium chloride (ODA) in an aqueous solution. The packing of the intercalated ODA surfactant depended on the CEC and the degree of solvent extraction. Two possible phases of the interlayer packing, solidlike and liquidlike, were detected for the extracted BNH because of the charge heterogeneity of the clay. The liquidlike phase showed a good affinity toward the styrene monomer, which promoted the formation of exfoliated nanocomposites. On the other hand, the solidlike phase showed a restricted dispersion in the styrene monomer. The organoclay interlayer showed limited expansion by the styrene monomer. This led to the formation of intercalated nanocomposites. An increase in the organoclay loading hindered the formation of the exfoliated nanocomposites. © 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 95: 785–789, 2005

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