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Improving oxygen barrier properties of poly(ethylene terephthalate) by incorporating isophthalate. I. Effect of orientation

Authors

  • R. Y. F. Liu,

    1. Department of Macromolecular Science and Center for Applied Polymer Research, Case Western Reserve University, 10900 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, Ohio 44106-7202
    Current affiliation:
    1. 3M, St. Paul, MN 55144
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  • Y. S. Hu,

    1. Department of Macromolecular Science and Center for Applied Polymer Research, Case Western Reserve University, 10900 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, Ohio 44106-7202
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  • M. R. Hibbs,

    1. School of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332
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  • D. M. Collard,

    1. School of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332
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  • D. A. Schiraldi,

    1. Department of Macromolecular Science and Center for Applied Polymer Research, Case Western Reserve University, 10900 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, Ohio 44106-7202
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  • A. Hiltner,

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Macromolecular Science and Center for Applied Polymer Research, Case Western Reserve University, 10900 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, Ohio 44106-7202
    • Department of Macromolecular Science and Center for Applied Polymer Research, Case Western Reserve University, 10900 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, Ohio 44106-7202
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  • E. Baer

    1. Department of Macromolecular Science and Center for Applied Polymer Research, Case Western Reserve University, 10900 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, Ohio 44106-7202
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Abstract

The present study examined poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) and a series of statistical and blocky copolymers in which up to 30% of the terephthalate was replaced with isophthalate by copolymerization and melt blending, respectively. Some level of transesterification during processing of melt blends resulted in blocky copolymers, as confirmed by NMR. Random and blocky copolymers exhibited similar properties in the glassy state, including a single glass transition, due to miscibility of the blocks. However, random copolymerization effectively retarded cold-crystallization from the glass whereas blocky copolymers readily cold-crystallized to a crystallinity level close to that of PET. The polymers were oriented at four temperatures in the vicinity of the Tg and characterized by oxygen transport, wide-angle X-ray diffraction, positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy, and infrared spectroscopy. Orientation of all the copolymers resulted in property changes consistent with strain-induced crystallization. However, blocky copolymers oriented more easily than random copolymers of the same composition and after orientation exhibited slightly lower oxygen permeability, higher density, and higher fraction trans conformers. Analysis of oxygen solubility based on free volume concepts led to a two-phase model from which the amount of crystallinity and the amorphous phase density were extracted. Dedensification of the amorphous phase correlated with the draw temperature. © 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 98: 1615–1628, 2005

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