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Film formation from pigmented latex systems: Mechanical and surface properties of ground calcium carbonate/functionalized poly(n-butyl methacrylate-co-n-butyl acrylate) latex blend films

Authors

  • Tianhua Ding,

    1. Emulsion Polymers Institute, Lehigh University, Iacocca Hall, 111 Research Drive, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania 18015
    2. Department of Chemical Engineering, Lehigh University, Iacocca Hall, 111 Research Drive, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania 18015
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  • Eric S. Daniels,

    1. Emulsion Polymers Institute, Lehigh University, Iacocca Hall, 111 Research Drive, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania 18015
    2. Department of Chemical Engineering, Lehigh University, Iacocca Hall, 111 Research Drive, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania 18015
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  • Mohamed S. El-Aasser,

    1. Emulsion Polymers Institute, Lehigh University, Iacocca Hall, 111 Research Drive, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania 18015
    2. Department of Chemical Engineering, Lehigh University, Iacocca Hall, 111 Research Drive, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania 18015
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  • Andrew Klein

    Corresponding author
    1. Emulsion Polymers Institute, Lehigh University, Iacocca Hall, 111 Research Drive, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania 18015
    2. Department of Chemical Engineering, Lehigh University, Iacocca Hall, 111 Research Drive, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania 18015
    • Emulsion Polymers Institute, Lehigh University, Iacocca Hall, 111 Research Drive, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania 18015
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Abstract

The mechanical and surface properties of films prepared from model latex/pigment blends were studied using tensile tests, surface gloss measurements, and atomic force microscopy. Functionalized poly(n-butyl methacrylate-co-n-butyl acrylate) [P(BMA/BA)] and ground calcium carbonate (GCC) were used as latex and extender pigment particles, respectively. The critical pigment volume concentration of this pigment/latex blend system was found to be between 50 and 60 vol % as determined by surface gloss measurement and tensile testing of the blend films. As the pigment volume concentration increased in the blends, the Young's modulus of the films increased. Nielsen's equations were found to fit the experimental data very well. When the surface coverage of carboxyl groups on the latex particles was increased, the yield strength and Young's modulus of the films both increased, indicating better adhesion at the interfaces between the GCC and latex particles. When the carboxyl groups were neutralized during the film formation process, regions with reduced chain mobility were formed. These regions acted as a filler to improve the modulus of the copolymer matrix and the modulus of the resulting films. The carboxyl groups on the latex particle surfaces increased the surface smoothness of the films as determined by surface gloss measurement. When the initial stabilizer coverage of the latex particles was increased, the mechanical strength of the resulting films increased. At the same time, rougher film surfaces also were observed because of the migration of the stabilizer to the surface during film formation. With smaller-sized latex particles, the pigment/latex blends had higher yield strength and Young's modulus. Higher film formation temperatures strengthen the resulting films and also influence their surface morphology. © 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 100: 4550–4560, 2006

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