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Lignins for phenol replacement in novolac-type phenolic formulations, part I: Lignophenolic resins synthesis and characterization

Authors

  • A. Tejado,

    1. Materials and Technologies Group, Chemical and Environmental Engineering Department, University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), 20018 Donostia-San Sebastián, Spain
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  • G. Kortaberria,

    1. Materials and Technologies Group, Chemical and Environmental Engineering Department, University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), 20018 Donostia-San Sebastián, Spain
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  • C. Peña,

    1. Materials and Technologies Group, Chemical and Environmental Engineering Department, University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), 20018 Donostia-San Sebastián, Spain
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  • J. Labidi,

    1. Materials and Technologies Group, Chemical and Environmental Engineering Department, University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), 20018 Donostia-San Sebastián, Spain
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  • J. M. Echeverría,

    1. Hexion Ibérica S.A., Epele 39, Ctra a Navarra, 20120 Hernani, Spain
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  • Inaki Mondragon

    Corresponding author
    1. Materials and Technologies Group, Chemical and Environmental Engineering Department, University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), 20018 Donostia-San Sebastián, Spain
    • Materials and Technologies Group, Chemical and Environmental Engineering Department, University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), 20018 Donostia-San Sebastián, Spain
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Abstract

Several lignin (L)-based novolac-type phenolic prepolymers with two phenol (P) substitution degrees have been synthesized using three L from different origin (kraft pine L, soda/anthraquinone (AQ) flax L, and sulfonated kraft softwood L). These lignophenolic (LPF) resins have been characterized by means of free P and formaldehyde (F) analysis, viscosity, chemical structure (FTIR), and thermal behavior (DSC). Temperature at which curing reaction begins (DSC), hardening time at several curing temperatures (rheology) and volumetric changes (PVT) have also been determined for the curing process with 10 wt % hexamethylenetetraamine (HMTA). All the results have been compared to those obtained for a commercial novolac. Depending on the L type employed a homogeneous material with lower curing onset temperature and gelation time than reference PF can be obtained even at high P substitution level (45 wt %). © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 2007

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