Semicontinuous copolymerization of 80/20 wt % [2-(acryloyloxy)ethyl]trimethyl ammonium chloride/acrylamide in an inverse microemulsion at high comonomer concentrations

Authors

  • José R. Ochoa-Gómez,

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Industrial Technology, Universidad Alfonso X el Sabio, Avenida de la Universidad 1, 28696 Villanueva de la Cañada, Spain
    • Department of Industrial Technology, Universidad Alfonso X el Sabio, Avenida de la Universidad 1, 28696 Villanueva de la Cañada, Spain
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  • Francisco J. Escudero-Sanz,

    1. Technological Center, Department of Sustainable Chemistry, Fundación LEIA Centro Technológico, Parque Tecnológico de Álava, Leonardo Da Vinci 11, 01510 Miñano, Spain
    Current affiliation:
    1. Centre Rapsodee, Ecole de Mines d'Albi-Carmaux, Campus Jalard, Route de Teillet, 81013 Albi Cedex 9, France
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  • Pedro M. Sasia,

    1. Fundación Inversión Ahorro Responsable, Santa María 9, 48005 Bilbao, Spain
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  • Francisca Río,

    1. Technological Center, Department of Sustainable Chemistry, Fundación LEIA Centro Technológico, Parque Tecnológico de Álava, Leonardo Da Vinci 11, 01510 Miñano, Spain
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  • Javier Nieto-Mestre,

    1. Technological Center, Department of Sustainable Chemistry, Fundación LEIA Centro Technológico, Parque Tecnológico de Álava, Leonardo Da Vinci 11, 01510 Miñano, Spain
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  • Jesús Torrecilla,

    1. Technological Center, Department of Sustainable Chemistry, Fundación LEIA Centro Technológico, Parque Tecnológico de Álava, Leonardo Da Vinci 11, 01510 Miñano, Spain
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  • Issa A. Katime

    1. Grupo de Nuevos Materiales y Espectroscopía Supramolecular, Department of Physical Chemistry, Universidad del País Vasco, Apartado 644, Bilbao, Spain
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Abstract

The semicontinuous inverse microemulsion copolymerization of 80/20 wt % [2-(acryloyloxy)ethyl]trimethylammonium chloride/acrylamide in an isoparaffin solvent at high comonomer concentrations (30–42 wt %) was studied with a mixture of nonionic surfactants (Crill 43 and Softanol 90) as the emulsifier and sodium metabisulfite as the initiator. The influence of the total comonomer concentration (TCC), emulsifier concentration (EC), hydrophilic–lipophilic balance (HLB), isopropyl alcohol (chain-transfer agent) concentration (IPC), and crosslinking agent concentration (CAC) on the weight-average molar mass (Mw), absolute viscosity (BV), and viscometric structuring index (VSI) of the obtained copolymers was analyzed. Mw and BV increased with TCC and HLB and decreased with EC. At the higher TCC, Mw decreased with IPC; meanwhile, at the lower TCC, Mw increased with IPC above 0.5 wt %. VSI increased with TCC, HLB, and IPC and decreased with EC. VSI increased dramatically with CAC, whereas BV showed a peak at the CAC of 10 ppm. In the absence of both chain-transfer and crosslinking agents, Mw increased linearly with VSI, and this suggests that linear copolymers of very high Mw values cannot be obtained by inverse microemulsion copolymerization, at least for high TCCs. The results are explained in terms of both the collapsed state of the copolymer chains inside the latex particles and changes in the interface structure and composition. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2009

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