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Viscoelastic properties of fly ash-filled natural rubber compounds: Effect of fly ash loading

Authors

  • Thanunya Saowapark,

    1. Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10400, Thailand
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  • Narongrit Sombatsompop,

    1. Polymer Processing and Flow (P-PROF) Group, School of Energy, Environment, and Materials, King Mongkut's University of Technology Thonburi (KMUTT), Bangmod, Thungkru, Bangkok 10140 Thailand
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  • Chakrit Sirisinha

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10400, Thailand
    2. Research and Development Center for Thai Rubber Industry (RDCTRI), Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Salaya Campus, Salaya, Nakhon Pathom 73170, Thailand
    • Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10400, Thailand
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Abstract

Fly ash (FA) as a by-product of power station plants is known to consist of silicon dioxide similar to precipitated silica. The use of FA as filler in natural rubber (NR) was of interest to reinforce and/or reduce product cost. In this article, viscoelastic properties of FA-filled NR composites with various FA loadings were investigated with the utilization of two different modes of shear flow, namely, oscillatory and steady shear flow. It is found that the addition of FA to NR increases storage modulus (G′) and shear viscosity under both oscillatory and steady shear flow. Moreover, the oscillatory test results exhibit the unexpected increase in magnitude of viscous response with increasing FA loading in FA-filled NR compounds. The explanation is proposed in terms of the ball-bearing effect of FA with spherical shape associated with the occurrence of molecular degradation induced by inorganic constituents particularly manganese, iron, and copper in nonrubber component of NR as well as the small amount of heavy metals including iron, copper in FA. An isoprene rubber (IR) containing no nonrubber component was used to validate the proposed explanation. In addition, with the use of Cox-Merz concept, the results of both complex viscosity under oscillatory shear flow and apparent shear viscosity under steady shear flow can effectively be superimposed in the case of FA-filled compounds, supporting the promotion of viscous response by FA. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2009

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