• polyurethane foam;
  • ammonium polyphosphate;
  • expandable graphite;
  • flame retardance


In this work, the effect of expandable graphite (EG) and ammonium polyphosphate (APP) on the flame retardancy and mechanical properties of the rigid polyurethane foam (RPUF) was studied. The results indicated that both EG and APP could effectively improve the flame retardancy of RPUF, while the retardancy of EG was better than APP. When the flame-retardant loading was 15 wt %, the limited oxygen index (LOI) values of APP- and EG-filled RPUF were 24.5 and 32 vol %, respectively. According to the LOI test, the optimal ratio of APP to EG in RPUF composites was 1 : 1 by weight, at which the LOI value of 15 wt % (APP + EG)/RPUF was 30.5 vol %. Thermal degradation test of RPUF composites by thermogravimetric analysis indicated that the addition of APP and EG to RPUF could lead to an increase in the amount of high-temperature residue. Under the same conditions, the residue amount of EG/RPUF was less than that of APP/RPUF at the same temperature. Compression test and dynamic thermal mechanical analysis indicated that both the compressive strength and modulus decreased at a certain extent with the EG- or APP-filled into RPUF, respectively, but with the mixture of EG and APP added into RPUF, the mechanical properties of these materials increased. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2009