Electrochemical synthesis and studies of polypyrroles doped by renewable dopant cardanol azophenylsulfonic acid derived from cashew nutshells



The raw material cardanol, a renewable resource, is industrial waste and a pollutant from the cashew nut industry. Cardanol is a useful starting material for synthesizing a new amphiphilic molecule, cardanol azophenylsulfonic acid (CAPSA). In this study, polypyrroles were electrochemically synthesized with the renewable dopant CAPSA. The polymers were characterized with ultraviolet–visible, Fourier transform infrared, conductivity, impedance, charge–discharge, and cyclic voltammetry analyses. The conductivity of the films doped by CAPSA was in the range of 1.23–3.98 × 10−5 S/cm, and they exhibited moderate specific capacitance values. ©2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2009