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Structure and antimicrobial activity relationship of quaternary N-alkyl chitosan derivatives against some plant pathogens

Authors

  • Mohamed E. I. Badawy

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    1. Department of Pesticide Chemistry, Faculty of Agriculture, Alexandria University, 21545-El-Shatby, Alexandria, Egypt
    • Department of Pesticide Chemistry, Faculty of Agriculture, Alexandria University, 21545-El-Shatby, Alexandria, Egypt
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Abstract

In the present work, quaternary chitosans as water-soluble compounds were prepared based on three-step process. Schiff bases were firstly synthesized by the reaction between the amino groups of chitosan with aliphatic aldehydes followed by a reduction with sodium borohydride (NaBH4) to form N-(alkyl) chitosans. N,N,N-(dimethyl alkyl) chitosans were then obtained by a reaction of chitosan containing N-butyl, N-pentyl, N-hexyl, N-heptyl, and N-octyl substituents with methyl iodide. The compounds were characterized using IR and NMR spectroscopy. Subsequent experiments were conducted to test their antimicrobial activities against the most economic plant pathogenic bacteria of crown gall disease Agrobacterium tumefaciens, soft mold disease Erwinia carotovora, fungi of grey mold Botrytis cinerea, root rot disease Fusarium oxysporum, and damping off disease Pythium debaryanum. Quaternary chitosans enhanced the antibacterial activity and N,N,N-(dimethyl pentyl) chitosan was the most active one with Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of 750 and 1225 mg/L against A. tumefaciens and E. carotovora, respectively. All quaternized chitosans gave stronger antifungal activities than chitosan where N,N,N-(dimethyl pentyl) chitosan and N,N,N-(dimethyl octyl) chitosan were significantly the highest in mycelial growth inhibiation against B. cinerea (EC50 = 908 and 383 mg/L, respectively), F. oxysporum (EC50 = 871 and 812 mg/L, respectively), and P. debaryanum (EC50 = 624 and 440 mg/L, respectively). In addition, spore germination of B. cinerea and F. oxysporum was significantly affected with the compounds at the tested concentrations and the inhibition activity was increased with an increase in the chain length of the alkyl substituent. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2010

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