Synthesis, characterization, and thermal behaviors of tannin stearates prepared from quebracho and pine bark extracts



Reported is the preparation of various condensed tannin stearates and the associated chemical characterization and thermal properties of these products. Stearate esters of condensed tannins from both quebracho and pine bark extracts were prepared in generally high, isolated yields from reaction with stearic acid chloride. Tannin esterification was confirmed by both Fourier transform infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and the average degree of stearate substitution was calculated from 1H-NMR analysis. Product degree of substitution (DS) was observed to proportionately increase with higher stearic acid chloride ratio with maximum DS values of 4.0 and 5.1 achieved for quebracho and pine tannins, respectively. Thermal analysis revealed that tannin stearate products have increased thermal stability with a degradation onset at significantly higher temperature for those samples possessing relatively greater DS. Analysis using differential scanning calorimetry revealed isolated products to consist of multiple components which exhibit interesting melt behaviors, a likely result from their work up on isolation. However, multiple melt features of the individual components in products were lost on heating to give single, broad melt endotherms due to coalescence of sample components. Furthermore, tannin stearate samples with high DS show relatively greater endothermic melting at higher temperature than those samples with lower DS. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2010