Molecular activation energies (Δμ*2) of L-lysine, L-tyrosine, L-proline, DL-alanine, glycerol, orcinol, iodine, DTAB, and TMSOI for blending with melamine-formaldehyde-polyvinylpyrrolidone polymer resin illustrated with SEM



Efficient molecular mixing together is a key precondition for industrial exploitation of individual macromolecules for potential product development and quality assurance with resource saving mechanism. Conceptually, MFP (melamine-formaldehyde-polyvinylpyrrolidone) polymer resin was mixed with amino acids (L-lysine, L-tyrosine, L-proline, DL-alanine), nonionic surfactants (glycerol, orcinol), iodine as metal and cationic surfactants (DTAB, TMSOI) as dispersants, in 4 : 1 ratio, w/w. A mutual molecular dispersion occurs at a cost of molecular activities with utilization of a sufficient amount of activation energies. The activation energies (Δμ*2, kJ mol−1) were derived from intrinsic viscosities ([η], kg/L) and partial molar volumes (V2, 10−6 m3/mol), which were calculated from experimental data of viscosities (η, N s m−2) and apparent molar volumes (V2, 10−6 m3/mol) of 0.005, 0.007, 0.009, and 0.0011 g/mL aqueous samples of the dispersants at 304.15 K. The limiting data were fitted to standard activation energy equations and were analyzed to assess potential of their micromixing. Densities (ρ/103 kg m−3) for apparent molar volume (V2/10−6 m3 mol−1) and viscosity (η, 0.1N, s m−2 = 0.1 kg m−1 s−1, = 1 poise, SI unit) were also measured with weight method. The Δμ*2< 0, in arrange of −48.35 to −118.03 kJ/mol were noted that inferred effective micromixing evidenced with SEM images of the blends. The Δμ*2, kJ mol−1 data are as glycerol (−118.03) > TMSOI (−117.55) > DTAB (−102.93) > orcinol (−101.54) > MFP-R (−93.71) > iodine (−59.32) > L-proline (−59.27) > L-lysine (−55.87) > DL-alanine (−55.04) > L-tyrosine (−53.04) > water (−48.35) orders with maximum utilization of Δμ*2, glycerol. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2010