Morphology and mechanical properties of soy protein scaffolds made by directional freezing

Authors

  • Juan Guan,

    1. The Key Laboratory of Molecular Engineering of Polymers of Ministry of Education, Department of Macromolecular Science, Laboratory of Advanced Materials, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433, China
    2. Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PS, United Kingdom
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  • David Porter,

    1. Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PS, United Kingdom
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  • Kun Tian,

    1. The Key Laboratory of Molecular Engineering of Polymers of Ministry of Education, Department of Macromolecular Science, Laboratory of Advanced Materials, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433, China
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  • Zhengzhong Shao,

    1. The Key Laboratory of Molecular Engineering of Polymers of Ministry of Education, Department of Macromolecular Science, Laboratory of Advanced Materials, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433, China
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  • Xin Chen

    Corresponding author
    1. The Key Laboratory of Molecular Engineering of Polymers of Ministry of Education, Department of Macromolecular Science, Laboratory of Advanced Materials, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433, China
    • The Key Laboratory of Molecular Engineering of Polymers of Ministry of Education, Department of Macromolecular Science, Laboratory of Advanced Materials, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433, China
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Abstract

Directional freezing and freeze-drying techniques were used to make robust soy protein scaffolds. The development of the morphology and mechanical properties of the scaffolds with fabrication conditions such as solution concentration and freeze temperature was studied in detail. Directional freezing produced anisotropic morphological features in the soy protein scaffolds, which produced differences between the mechanical properties in the freeze direction and the direction perpendicular to it. The evolution of the scaffold morphology started from the fibrillar columns, which widened to become layers and which then grew regularly spaced ridges normal to the layers, which eventually fused to form a highly anisotropic foam structure. Suitable soy protein solutions for making the scaffolds were prepared with guanidine hydrochloride and dithiothreitol, and the viscosity–concentration relations showed that the soy protein behaved consistently as a good polymer solution over the concentration range used for the scaffolds. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2010

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