Shear and extensional rheology and flow-induced orientation of carbon nanofiber/polystyrene melt composites



The rheological behavior and morphology of polystyrene/carbon nanofiber (PS/CNF) composites in their melt phase have been characterized through experimental measurements. Viscosity measurements of the PS/CNF composites in the linear viscoelastic regime show the ratio of the transient extensional viscosity to the transient shear viscosity to be greater than three, the Trouton ratio. This behavior is due to differences in the flow-induced orientation of CNFs in shear and extensional flow. The orientation development of the CNFs in shear and extensional flow was analyzed through a method utilizing transmission electron microscopy and was used to explain observed rheological phenomena. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2011