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Keywords:

  • rubber;
  • carbon black;
  • viscoelastic properties;
  • compounding;
  • modeling

Abstract

A series of carbon black filled SBR 1500 compounds (without curatives) were prepared in carefully controlled lab-mixing conditions so that filler content ranged from 0 to 50 phr, with the usual compounding ingredients. Carbon Black agglomeration and dispersion quality were assessed through an advanced microscopic technique with automated data treatment. Linear and nonlinear viscoelastic properties were evaluated using a closed cavity torsional rheometer, equipped for Fourier Transform rheometry experiments. In the linear viscoelastic regime, dynamic moduli mastercurves were derived from experiments in the 60−160°C temperature range. In the nonlinear viscoelastic regime, complex modulus and torque harmonics variation with strain amplitude were investigated at 100°C and frequency 0.5 and 1.0 Hz. Relationships between dispersion quality, carbon black loading and mixing parameters were investigated so that dispersion appears better when the filler loading is above a critical level that to some extent (but not exactly) corresponds to the theoretical percolation threshold (around 13%). Linear and nonlinear viscoelastic measurements demonstrate and quantify the role played by plasticizing compounding ingredients, that is, processing oil, stearic acid and other chemicals, with nearly no significant effect of mixing energy. At least 10−15 phr carbon black are necessary to recover the modulus loss associated with this plasticizing effect. Nonlinear results and particularly the torque harmonics reveal a number of details as to how the compounding ingredients do affect the viscoelastic behavior, with expectedly the carbon black playing the major role. By fitting results with mathematically simple models, all of the observed effects can be summarized in a rather limited number of parameters so that the effects of compounding ingredients can be studied in details. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2011