Temperature dependence and fracture criterion of mixed mode I/II fracture toughness of phenolic resin for friction material



In this study, the temperature dependence of the mixed-mode fracture toughness of the phenolic resin for friction materials is investigated. For pure mode I, the fracture toughness decreases as the temperature increases, and it increases again after showing its minimum value. For pure mode II, the fracture toughness shows a similar trend but has its minimum value at a higher temperature. The temperature dependence of the mixed-mode fracture toughness varies depending on the mode mixity, which is attributed to the different sensitivity to the relaxation phenomenon. At room temperature, as the fracture toughness for pure mode I and II are almost the same, the fracture locus shows a circular arc. At elevated temperatures, the locus becomes smaller and noncircular. At high temperature, the fracture locus shows an elliptical arc, where the fracture toughness for pure mode II is smaller than that for mode I. An empirical fracture criterion based on the time-temperature dependence of the resin is proposed, and the proposed method successfully predicts the fracture toughness under various conditions of the temperature, time, and mode mixity. The crack initiation angles, on the other hand, are almost consistent regardless of the temperature, which agree with the maximum hoop stress theory. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2011