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Modification of maleic anhydride–styrene copolymer with noradrenaline by chemical and enzymatic methods



Maleic anhydride copolymer was modified with another biologically active agent, noradrenaline (NA), using both chemical and enzymatic methods. The modification and synthesized products were named as follows: chemical modification, MASTNAc; enzymatic modification, MASTNAe; enzymatically synthesized MASTNA from individual monomers, MASTNAem. Chemical and enzymatic reactions were performed at 70°C and 38°C, respectively. In the chemical reactions azobisisobutyronitrile was used as the initiator. In the enzymatic reactions, an extracellular extract, including an enzyme with peroxidase-like activity, was used. All the reactions were performed in an organic medium, methyl ethyl ketone. Structural characterization of the copolymer and modified copolymer were carried out by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR). FTIR and 1H NMR spectra confirmed that NA was successfully covalently bound onto the MAST copolymer backbone by both chemical and enzymatic methods. Surface morphology of the samples was studied by scanning electron microscopy. Results obtained indicated that chemical and enzymatic addition of NA to MAST backbone yielded products having quite similar physical and chemical properties. On the other hand, MASTNA-modified copolymer synthesized by individual monomers appeared to be different in its chemical structure. Furthermore, enzymatic modification and synthesis appeared to provide a good alternative method because it required much milder conditions such as low temperature, and better product qualities: higher solubility in water, higher yield and purity. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2011