Transparent poly(styrene-butadiene-styrene) (SBS)-quantum dots (QDs) composites (SBS/CdTe QDs) that simultaneously possess strong photoluminescence (PL) and enhanced mechanical properties are presented for the first time based on the facile blending of SiO2-hybridized CdTe QDs with SBS. UV–vis spectrum and fluorescence measurement show that SBS/CdTe QDs composites exhibit good optical properties. The results of transmission electron microscopy show good dispersion of CdTe QDs in the SBS matrix. The results of dynamic mechanical thermal analysis indicate that the micro-phase separated structure of the SBS is exist in the composites, and the presence of CdTe QDs can lead to an decrease of glass transition temperatures of polybutadiene (PB) and polystyrene(PS) domains. In addition, mechanical tests reveal that the addition of CdTe QDs is a useful approach to improve the mechanical properties of SBS. Meanwhile, the fluorescent photographs taken under ultraviolet light prove that SBS/CdTe QDs composites possess strong PL. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2011.