The aim of this research is to develop nanocomposite polyethylene terephthalate-polyamide blends (PET/MXD6 blends) with low oxygen permeability. Particular attention has been paid to the relation between barrier properties and the processing route adopted and therefore four different strategies were considered. Mechanical characterization shows that clay may effectively act as reinforcing filler in PET/MXD6 blends. Morphological characterization shows the strong effect of the processing strategy on clay dispersion and its distribution between the PET and polyamide phases. Barrier properties of PET/MXD6 nanocomposite blends are enhanced with respect to neat PET polymer as well as PET/MXD6 blends. The significant effect of processing techniques on barrier properties is also revealed. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2011.