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Evaluation of nonconventional additives as fire retardants on polyamide 6,6: Phosphorous-based master batch, α-zirconium dihydrogen phosphate, and β-cyclodextrin based nanosponges

Authors

  • Daniela Enescu,

    Corresponding author
    1. Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali e Ingegneria Chimica, Politecnico di Torino, Alessandria Branch, Viale T. Michel, 5, 15121 Alessandria, Italy
    • Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali e Ingegneria Chimica, Politecnico di Torino, Alessandria Branch, Viale T. Michel, 5, 15121 Alessandria, Italy
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  • Jenny Alongi,

    1. Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali e Ingegneria Chimica, Politecnico di Torino, Alessandria Branch, Viale T. Michel, 5, 15121 Alessandria, Italy
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  • Alberto Frache

    1. Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali e Ingegneria Chimica, Politecnico di Torino, Alessandria Branch, Viale T. Michel, 5, 15121 Alessandria, Italy
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Abstract

The influence of new types of additives, such as halogen- and antimony-free flame-retardant master batches based on phosphorus, α-zirconium dihydrogen phosphate, and β-cyclodextrin nanosponges, on the flame retardancy of polyamide 6,6 (PA6,6) by means of cone calorimetry and limiting oxygen index (LOI) tests was investigated. A significant decrease of the heat release rate, depending by the type of additive used, was observed. Furthermore, with the consideration that the life safety during the fire could be improved by a decrease in the fire hazard, a decrease in the quantity of the smoke and its toxicity, depending also on the type of additive, was revealed. With regard to the LOI test, neat PA6,6 showed a slight increase in the LOI value in comparison with the PA6,6 composites. However, all of the PA6,6/composites showed a slower burning velocity and antidripping effects at oxygen concentrations corresponding to the LOI value. To understand the flame-retardancy mechanism of these novel PA6,6 composites, we thoroughly investigated their thermal decomposition behavior and microstructure/elemental analysis by scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Furthermore, the combustion behavior of these novel PA6,6 composites was compared with that of conventional nanofillers (e.g., modified montmorillonite clay and carbon nanotubes). © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2012

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