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Preparation and characterization of double-layered microencapsulated red phosphorus and its flame retardance in poly(lactic acid)



A novel double-layered microencapsulated red phosphorus (DMRP) has been prepared through chemical precipitation of aluminum trihydrate (ATH) and in situ polymerization of melamine formaldehyde (MF) resin on the red phosphorus (RP) powder surface, and its structure was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The influence of DMRP on flame retardance and thermal stability of poly(lactic acid) (PLA) was thoroughly investigated by means of X-ray diffractometry (XRD), limiting oxygen index (LOI), vertical burning test, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). With an optimum mass ratio of RP/ATH/MF = 72.25%/12.75%/15%, it has been found that PLA with the addition of DMRP at 25 wt % loading level shows good flame retardance compared to plain RP as well as the conventional microencapsulated red phosphorus (CMRP), and can achieve UL94 V-0 rating along with an LOI increase from 20.5 to 29.3. The TGA and XRD studies indicate that the interaction occurs among all three components: RP, ATH, and MF resin. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2012