Synergistic effect of ammonium polyphosphate and expandable graphite on flame-retardant properties of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene

Authors

  • Lan-Lan Ge,

    1. Department of Chemical Technology, College of Chemical Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065, People's Republic of China
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Hong-Ji Duan,

    1. State Key Laboratory of Polymer Materials Engineering, College of Polymer Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065, People's Republic of China
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Xiao-Guang Zhang,

    1. Department of Chemical Technology, College of Chemical Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065, People's Republic of China
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Chen Chen,

    Corresponding author
    1. Analytic and Testing Center, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065, People's Republic of China
    • Analytic and Testing Center, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065, People's Republic of China
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Jian-Hua Tang,

    1. Department of Chemical Technology, College of Chemical Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065, People's Republic of China
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Zhong-Ming Li

    1. State Key Laboratory of Polymer Materials Engineering, College of Polymer Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065, People's Republic of China
    Search for more papers by this author

Abstract

A new intumescent flame-retardant (IFR) system consisting of expandable graphite (EG) and ammonium polyphosphate (APP) was applied in acrylonitrile–butadiene–styrene (ABS) resin. A synergistic effect between EG and APP on the flame retardancy of ABS was observed. Fixing the total loading of flame retardant at 15 wt %, the limited oxygen index (LOI) could reach 31 vol % at a weight ratio of 3 : 1 for EG and APP. While LOI values of EG- and APP-filled ABS were only 26.0 and 21.5 vol % at the same loading, respectively. The UL-94 vertical burning test suggested that samples with different ratios of EG and APP could all pass V-0 rating while the samples containing EG and APP alone only passed V-1 rating. Thermogravimetric analysis indicated that the addition of EG and APP (3 : 1 by weight) to ABS led to an increase in the amount of high-temperature residue by 11.8 wt %, and a decrease of mass loss rate by 0.7%/°C compared with pure ABS. Scanning electronic microscopy revealed a homogeneous compact intumescent char layer of ABS/EG/APP samples. Based on our experiment and combined with others' previous studies, the synergistic mechanism is inferred. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2012

Ancillary