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Effects of chitosan characteristics on the physicochemical properties, antibacterial activity, and cytotoxicity of chitosan/2-glycerophosphate/nanosilver hydrogels



The effects of molecular weight (MW) and the degree of deacetylation (DD) of chitosan (CS) on the physicochemical properties, antibacterial activity, and cytotoxicity of CS/2-glycerophosphate (GP)/nanosilver hydrogel in the development of a thermosensitive in situ formed wound dressing are examined herein. The gelation temperatures for the hydrogels were measured in the range of 32–37°C by manipulating the MW and DD of CS and the GP concentration. The structure of 88% DD CS hydrogel was more porous, uniform, and connective than that of the 80% DD CS hydrogel. The superior water vapor transmission rates of hydrogels with 80% and 88% DD CS were 7150 ± 52 and 9044 ± 221 gm−2 d−1, respectively. The skin permeations of nanosilver by the 80% and 88% DD CS hydrogels were 3.82 and 4.99 μg cm−2, respectively, in 24 h tests. Both the hydrogels with 6 and 12 ppm nanosilver showed cytotoxicity for HS68 cells. The diameters of the hydrogel's inhibition zones for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus increased when the concentration of nanosilver increased and the MW of the CS decreased. Therefore, the hydrogel could be prepared with lower MW CS and lower concentration of nanosilver in order to reduce the cytotoxicity of nanosilver, while maintaining similar antibacterial activity for a hydrogel prepared with higher concentration nanosilver and higher MW CS. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 2013