• composites;
  • nanotubes;
  • graphene and fullerenes;
  • mechanical properties


Natural rubber (NR) containing graphene (GE) and graphene oxide (GO) were prepared by latex mixing. The in situ chemically reduction process in the latex was used to realize the conversion of GO to GE. A noticeable enhancement in tensile strength was achieved for both GO and GE filled NR systems, but GE has a better reinforcing effect than GO. The strain-induced crystallization was evaluated by synchrotron wide-angle X-ray diffraction. Increased crystallinity and special strain amplification effects were observed with the addition of GE. The incorporation of GE produces a faster strain-induced crystallization rate and a higher crystallinity compared to GO. The entanglement-bound tube model was used to characterize the chain network structure of composites. It was found that the contribution of entanglement to the conformational constraint increases and the network molecular parameters changes with the addition of GE and GO, while GE has a more evident effect than GO. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 2013