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Effect of triphenyl phosphate flame retardant on properties of arylamine-based polybenzoxazines



Three types of arylamine-based benzoxazine resins modified with both condensed-phase and gas-phase action flame retardant, i.e. triphenyl phosphate (TPP) at various weight ratios were investigated. From rheological study, it was found that the viscosity of benzoxazines/TPP mixtures were significantly lower than that of the neat benzoxazine monomers suggesting flow property enhancement. Furthermore, differential scanning calorimetry results revealed that the onset and the maximum temperatures of the exothermic peak, due to the ring opening polymerization of benzoxazine resins, shifted to lower temperatures with increasing TPP. In addition, all polybenzoxazines possessed relatively high char yield, which increased as the TPP content increased thus enhancing their flame retardancy. The limiting oxygen index values of the flame retarded polybenzoxazines also increased with TPP addition. The maximum flame retardancy of UL94 V-0 class was obtained with an addition of only few percents of TPP in the polybenzoxazines. Flexural strength, flexural modulus, and glass transition temperature of those polybenzoxazines tended to decrease with an addition of TPP mainly due to its plasticizing effect. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 130: 1074-1083, 2013