• biopolymers and renewable polymers;
  • cellulose and other wood products;
  • polyurethanes;
  • surfactants


Aqueous acetic acid lignin containing polyurethane (ALPU) surfactants were prepared by the replacement of some hydrophobic poly(caprolactone diol) with different concentrations of multifunctional acetic acid lignin (AL), and with dimethylol propionic acid as the hydrophilic segment. The infrared spectra, together with thermogravimetric analysis, demonstrated the presence of AL in the polyurethane (PU) chains. In addition, the effects of the AL concentration on the particle size, morphology, rheological behavior, and surface activity of the dispersions were investigated. The ALPU particles displayed a spherical morphology. With increasing AL concentration from 0 to 10 wt %, the particle size increased from 36 to 260 nm, and the unimodal distribution was detected for ALPU10 with a 10 wt % AL addition. The viscosity and shear-thinning behavior of the ALPU dispersions decreased, and the lowest surface tension and critical micelle concentration (cmc) were detected for ALPU10. However, when the AL concentration was 15 wt % (ALPU15), the surface tension and cmc increased. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 130: 1855–1862, 2013