The crystallization kinetics and crystalline structure of the biodegradable polymorphic polymers, poly(butylene adipate) (PBA) and poly(butylene adipate-co-hexamethylene adipate), in the microparticles and nanoparticles covered by poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), and those on the PVA substrate were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry, wide-angle X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Both the polymers crystallized in the particle state and on the PVA substrate showed higher crystallization temperatures in the nonisothermal melt crystallization and shorter crystallization times in the isothermal crystallization; this indicated a faster crystallization of the polymer in the particle state and on the PVA substrate than that of the bulk sample. Furthermore, the polymers in the particle state and on the PVA substrate showed the preferential formation of the β-type crystalline form of PBA compared to the bulk one. The mechanism for the effects of the PVA layer or substrate on the crystallization kinetics and crystalline structure of PBA and its copolyesters are discussed. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 2014, 131, 39600.