• degradation;
  • polyolefins;
  • thermoplastics


The synergistic mechanism of tetrabutyl titanate (TBT) in the intumescent flame-retardant polypropylene (PP) composites was investigated in this work. The intumescent flame-retardant was composed of pentaerythritol (PER) as a carbonizing agent ammonium polyphosphate (APP) as a dehydrating agent and blowing agent. Five different concentrations (1, 1.25, 1.5, 1.75, 2 wt %) of TBT were incorporated into flame retardant formulation to investigate the synergistic mechanism. The thermal degradation and flammability of composites were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), limiting oxygen index (LOI), and UL-94 tests. The morphology and chemical structure of char layer was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS). The results showed that LOI was increased from 27.8 to 32.5%, with the increase of TBT content from 0 to 1.5 wt %. Results from SEM, and FTIR demonstrated that TBT could react with APP and PER to form the stable char layer. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 130: 4255–4263, 2013