Graphene oxide (GO) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and their compound were introduced into semicrystalline poly(l-lactide) (PLLA) to prepare the corresponding binary and/or ternary nanocomposites, respectively. The dispersion states of nanofillers in different nanocomposites were investigated using UV-Vis spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and rheological measurement. The results showed that when GO and CNTs were simultaneously present in the PLLA matrix, good dispersion states of both GO and CNTs could be achieved and the ternary nanocomposites exhibited percolated network structure. The effects of different nanofillers on the crystallization behavior of PLLA matrix were comparatively investigated under the different crystallization conditions including melt crystallization process (nonisothermal and isothermal crystallization from the melt) and cold crystallization (crystallization occurring from an amorphous state during the annealing process). The results showed that GO and CNTs exhibited apparent synergistic effects in improving crystallization ability and enhancing crystallinity of PLLA matrix. Study on the thermal stability of nanocomposites showed that the presence of nanofillers greatly improved the thermal stability of PLLA matrix. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 2014, 131, 40143.