Cellulose fibers from cellulose/1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate solution were prepared by wet spinning with increasing extrusion speeds and draw ratios. The effects of spinning speeds on the structures and mechanical properties of these fibers were investigated by using scanning electron microscopy, wide angle X-ray diffraction, birefringence, thermogravimetric analysis, tensile-fineness tester, and wet friction. The results showed that the crystallinity, orientation, and mechanical properties of the fibers were improved with increasing draw ratio. The break draw ratios, degrees of crystallinity and orientation, tenacities, and wet friction time of the cellulose fibers decreased with increasing extruding speeds. The wet friction time decreased with increasing draw ratio and decreased faster under higher extrusion speed. Due to the high dope concentration and the increased draw ratio, the maximum tenacity of the regenerated cellulose fibers reached 2.73 cN/dtex. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 2014, 131, 40225.