Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) is the most widely used polymer and also the gold standard in the field of drug delivery. Therapeutic oligonucleotides, for example, are modified with PEG at the terminus to increases nuclease resistance and the circulating half-lives. The surface of nanoparticle such as micelle and liposome has been also modified with PEG. At present, one PEGylated therapeutic oligonucleotide has been approved for the market and several more PEGylated products including oligonucleotide and liposome are being tested in clinical settings. This review summarizes the methods and effects of PEGylation on gene delivery. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 2014, 131, 40293.